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University of Toronto St. George
Diane Mangalindan

B20 FINAL NOTES CHAPTER 6: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND ATTACHMENT EARLY EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT emotions: subjective reactions to something in the environment that are usually experienced cognitively as either pleasant or unpleasant, that are generally accompanied by physiological changes, and that are often expressed in some form of visible behaviour Why are emotions important? • Emotions are a means of letting others know how wefeel. Our success in communicating our emotions and in learning to interpret other people's emotions is linked with our social success. • children who become excessively sad may develop problems like poor concentration and withdrawal from social interaction • in addition, children reared in environments in which they are socially/emotionally deprived develop later problems with the management of stress/anxiety (heightened levels of cortisol) Primary and Secondary Emotions • primary motions include fear, joy, disgust, surprise, sadness, and interest and they occur early in life and don't require introspection or self-reflection • secondary emotions are self-conscious emotions likeguilt, shame, jealousy, and embarrassment • secondary emotions occur later in life and depend on our sense of self and our awareness of other people's reactions to our actions Perspectives on Emotional Development • a child's emotional development is influenced by genetic inheritance, environment, interactions with family members and peers I) Genetic-Maturational Perspective • emotions are best seen as products of biological factors • individual differences in temperament play a central role in how intensely children react to emotionally arousing situations and in how well they are able to regulate their reactions • 40 weeks is the normal conceptual age of a baby; they begin to smile around 6 weeks after they are born or 46 weeks after conception • premature babies (34 weeks) don't smile til 12 weeks after birth (46 weeks after conception) II) Learning Perspective • different emotional expressions have different onsets, frequencies, and intensities in different children • the frequency in which children smile/laugh varies with the nature of the environment in which they were raised • parents can help their children manage their emotions by rewarding only certain emotional displays and dismissing other ones for punishment III) Functionalist Perspective • a contemporary approach; emotions serve to help us achieve goals and adapt to our environment, and it emphasizes the role of emotions in establishing/maintaining social relationships as well as the role that social cues play in regulating our emotional perceptions and expressions DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY EMOTIONS Positive Primary Emotions: Smiling and Laughter reflex smile: a newborn infant's smile, which appears to reflectsome internal stimulus, such as a change in the infant's level of arousal, rather than an external stimulus, such as another person's behaviour • between 3-8 wks, infants smile in response to internal and external events like social stimuli (faces, voices, bouncing) Duchenne smile: special smile reserved for their mothers, rarely offered to anyone else • laughter indicates pleasure, which in turn indicates positive emotion • between ages 4mth-1yr, children are most likely tolaugh at visual and social stimuli like disappearing object and peekaboo Negative Primary Emotions: Fear, Anger, Sadness Fear of strangers: two phases: at 3 months, child shows wariness; around 7-9 months, child shows true fear stranger distress: a fear of strangers that typically emerges in infants around the age of 9 months social referencing: the process of "reading" emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in an uncertain situation • factors that alter infant fear include context, characteristics of stranger, behaviour of stranger, degree of control over strange person or object separation protest: an infant's distress reaction to being separated from his or her mother, which typically peaks at about 15 months of age (also called separation anxiety) • the first negative expressions are startle and disgust and distress DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY EMOTIONS More Complex Emotions: Pride, Shame, Guilt, and Jealousy • appropriate display of more complex emotions like pride, shame, guilt and jealousy, requires the ability to differentiate and integrate the roles ofmultiple factors in a situation, and often includes the role of personal responsibility Pride and Shame • children feel pride when they accomplish difficulttasks rather than easy ones Guilt • understanding guilt emerges in middle childhood (6-9) Jealousy • children show signs of jealousy when mothers directed their attention away from child toward a doll, infant, or peer. • is a social emotion • depends on nature of the relationship i which the emotion arises INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN EMOTIONS • infants and children differ in their degree of sociability, wariness, and fearfulness as well as their degree of guilt and jealousy RECOGNIZING EMOTIONS IN OTHERS • another challenge that infants confront within thefirst half year of life is that of learning to recognize emotional expressions in others. Babies'typically easier recognition of positive emotions than of negative ones has functional value, for it strengthens the bond with mothers. • In general, children are more proficient at producing than at recognizing emotions, but the two are positively related EMOTIONAL REGULATION AND EMOTIONAL DISPLAY RULES emotional display rules: rules that dictate which emotions one may appropriately display in particular situations HOW CHILDREN THINK ABOUT EMOTIONS Matching Emotions to Situations: Emotional Scripts emotional script: a complex scheme that enables a child to identify the emotional reaction that is likely to accompany a particular sort of event Multiple Emotions, Multiple Causes • another aspect of emotional understanding that develops only gradually is the awareness that one can have more than one feeling at a time and that one can even experience two or more conflicting feelings at the same time THE FAMILY'S ROLE IN EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • age 4-6: conceive one emotion at time • 6-8: begin to conceive two emotions of same type at sametime • 8-9: describe 2 distinct emotions in response to diff situations at the same time • 10: describe two opposite feelings where thee vents aredifferent or diff aspects of the same situation • 11 on: understand that the same even can cause opposing feelings Family's role in emotional development: • first, family members' own patterns of emotional expressiveness serve as models for the child's emotional expressiveness. • Second, parents' and siblings' specific reactions to children's emotions encourage or discourage certain patterns of emotional expressiveness. • Third, parents often act as emotional coaches by talking about emotions and explaining and exploring children's understanding of their own andother people's emotional responses THE DEVELOPMENT OF ATTACHMENT attachment: a strong emotional bond that forms between infant and caregiver in the second half of the child's first year Theories of Attachment psychoanalytic theory of attachment:the Freudian theory that babies become attached first to the mother's breast and then to the mother herself as asource of oral gratification learning theory of attachment:the theory that infants become attached to the mother because she provides food, or primary reinforcement, and, thus,she acquires secondary-reinforcement properties • secondary reinforce: a person or other stimulus that acquires reinforcing properties by virtue of repeated association with a primary reinforce cognitive developmental view of attachment:the view that to form attachments, infants must differentiate between mother and stranger and mustunderstand that people exist independently of their interaction with them ethological theory of attachment:Bowlby's theory that attachment derives from the biological preparation of both infant and parents to respond to each other's behaviours in such a way that parents provide the infant with care and protection • imprinting: the process by which birds and other infrahuman animals develop a preference for the person or object to which they are first exposed during a brief, critical period after birth How Attachment Evolves • attachment does not develop suddenly and unheraldedbut rather emerges in a series of steps Phases in the development of attachment • Pre-attachment (0-2): indiscriminate social responsiveness • Attachment-in-the-making (2-7): recognition of familiar people • Clear-cut attachment (7-24): separation protest; wariness of strangers; intentional communication • Goal-corrected partnership (24 on): relationships more two-sided: children understand parents' needs THE NATURE AND QUALITY OF ATTACHMENT Methods of Assessing Attachment Relationships secure base: according to Ainsworth, a caregiver to whom an infant has formed an attachment and whom the child uses as a base from which to explorenew things and as a safe haven in times of stress strange situation: a testing scenario in which mother and child are separated and reunited several times and that enables investigators to assess the natureand quality of a mother-infant attachment relationship secure attachment: a kind of attachment displayed by babies who are secure enough to explore novel environments, who are minimally disturbed by briefseparations from their mothers, and who greet them happily when they return insecure-avoidant attachment:a type of attachment shown by babies who seem not to be bothered by their mothers' brief absence but specifically avoidthem on their return, sometimes becoming visibly upset insecure-resistant attachment:a kind of attachment shown by babies who tend to become very upset at the departure of their mothers and who exhibit inconsistent behaviour on their mothers' return, sometimes seeking contact, sometimes pushing theirmothers away insecure-disorganized attachment:a type of attachment shown by babies who seem disorganized and disoriented when reunited with their mothers aftera brief separation attachment Q-sort (AQS):an assessment method in which a caregiver or observer judges the quality of a child's attachment based on the child's behaviourin naturalistic situations, often including brief separations from parents The Parents' Role in the Quality of Attachment Styles of Caregiving sensitive care: caregiving that is consistent and responsive and that begins by allowing an infant to play a role in determining when feeding will begin and end and at what pace it will proceed • mothers of babies with an insecure-avoidant type ofattachment tend to be unavailable and rejecting • parents of infants with insecure-resistant attachments exhibit an inconsistently available parenting style approach-avoidance behaviour:a pattern of interaction in which the infant or child shows an inconsistent pattern of approaching and retreatingfrom a person or an object interactive synchrony: a term that characterizes mother-infant interactions in which the mother constantly adjusts her behaviour to that of her baby, responding to and respecting his signals as to when he is ready for and wants engagement and interaction Is There Intergenerational Continuity in Attachment? internal working model: according to Bowlby, a person's mental representation of herself as a child, of her parents, and of the nature of her interaction with parents as she reconstructs and interprets that interaction Mother Child Mother-child relationship Autonomous Secure Mother's mind not taken up with unresolved concerns about her own experience; mother is sensitive to child's communications Dismissing Insecure-Avoidant Mother reluctant to acknowledge her own attachment needs and, thus, insensitive and unresponsive to child's needs Preoccupied Insecure-Resistant Mother confused about her attachment theory and is inconsistent in her interactions with her child Early Stages of Self Awareness • 0-3 mth: Infant shows interest in social objects but does not distinguish between self and other • 3-8: child's first signs of self-recognition, basedon contingency clues (fact that mirror image moves in tandem with child) are tentative and unreliable • 8-12: notion of self permanence emerges. Child reliably recognizes self based on contingency clues, begins to use feature clues (child's own physical features as seen in video or photograph • 12-24: basic self categorises (age/gender), are consolidated. Child reliably recognizes self based on feature clues MULTIPLE CAREGIERS AND ATTACHMENT: THE EFFECTS OF CHILD CARE centre care: an arrangement in which children are cared for in a"school-like" environment by professional caregivers family child care: an arrangement in which a person cares for three orfour children at home • some studies indicate that the amount of time spentin daycares etc is negatively correlated with the sensitivity mothers express toward their children and the affection children show to their mothers • other studies indicate infants of working mothers are slightly more likely to be classified insecurely attached than stay at home moms, but thepercentage is not large CHAPTER 11: THE FAMILY THE FAMILY SYSTEM The Ecological Systems Perspective morphogenesis: being able to adapt to changes both within a systemand outside of it. equifinality: developing systems similar to their's interdependency: each family member and family subsystem influencesand is influenced by each other member and substystem homeostasis: equilibrium The Marital System How Does the Marital Relationship Affect Children? • when partners offer each other emotional and physical support/comfort, that same kind of support to their children is greatly increased • conflict can have negative effects on parents and children (insecure attachments) Impact of a New Baby on the Marital/Partner System • there is a shift toward a more traditional divisionof labour between husband and wife • children can influence the relationship between parents on other ways (child is handicapped, adds marital stress) The Parent-Child System How Parents Socialize Children • they use reinforcement, modelling • they choose neighbourhoods and a home in which cater to the child • Promote the child's social life by arraning socialevents and enrolling child in sports/clubs Dimensions of Parental Behaviour • emotionality • control Parenting style authoritative parenting: parenting that is warm, responsive, and involved yet unintrusive, and in which parents set reasonable limits and expect appropriately mature behaviour from their children authoritarian parenting: parenting that is harsh, unresponsive, and rigid, and in which parents tend to use power=assertive methods of control permissive parenting: parenting that is lax and in which parents exerciseinconsistent discipline and encourage children to express their impulses freely uninvolved parenting: parenting that is indifferent and neglectful and inwhich parents focus on their own needs rather than on their children's needs The Co-Parenting System co-parenting: parenting in which spouses work together as a team,coordinating their child-rearing practices; co-parenting can be co-operative, hostile, or characterized by different levels of investment in the parenting task gate-keeping: is one form of co-parenting in which one parent limits or controls the other parent's level of participation The Sibling System How Are Siblings Affected by Birth Order? • first-born children are more adult-oriented, helpful, and self-controlled than their siblings, more studious, conscientious, and serious, to excel in academic and professional endeavours • an only child is exposed to the same high level ofparental demands as other first-borns but does not have to adapt to displacement and competition with siblings Birth Order, Parent-Child, and Sib-Sib interactions • siblings notice parents treat them differently • older siblings are assigned the supervisory and disciplinary roles that parents play in smaller families • oldest child is expected to assume responsibility for younger siblings • oldest child may function as tutors, managers, or supervisors • oldest child focus on parents as their main sourcesof social learning, whereas younger children use both parents and older siblings as models and teachers The Family Unit as an Agent of Children's Socialization: Family Stories and Rituals family stories: family members transmit family-of-origin experiences across generations by telling stories and sharing memories, in this way shaping contemporary interaction between family members. SOCIAL CLASS, ETHNICITY, AND SOCIALIZATION • In addition to obvious differences in income, education, and occupation lower-income and middle-class families differ in other ways • poor families generally experience little power within all the systems that they encounter, leading the to feel helpless, insecure, and controlled by external forces • stresses experienced by poor families often resultin the formation of extensive support and services that cannot be purchased • social class, ethnicity, race and culture have beenrelated to differences in child rearing extended family: typically, a family that includes may relatives such as grandparents, aunts, uncles nieces, and nephews, within the basic family unit of parents of children THE CHANGING FAMILY STRUCTURE traditional nuclear family:the traditional family form, composed of two parents and one or more children, in which the father is the breadwinner and the mother is the homemaker • family roles and forms have become more varied; single-parent households have increased, size of house • overall effects of rising maternal employment havebeen related to the mother's reason for working, the mother's satisfaction with her role, the demands placed on other family members placed on other family members, the attitudes of the other family members, and the quality of substitute care provided for the children. If eachof these is positive, maternal employment not only has detrimental effects o children but insteadmay have specific positive effects, especially for girls • divorce, one-parent family, and remarriage should be viewed as part of a series of transitions that modify family roles and relationships. In the first year, children in single-parent households tend to be more disturbed, but in the long run, most are able to adapt to their parents' divorce joint legal custody: a form of child custody in which both parents retain and share responsibility for decisions regarding the child's life but which generally provides for the child to reside with one parent joint physical custody: as in join legal custody, parents make decisions together regarding child's life, but they also share physical custody, the child living with each parent for a portion of the year CHILD ABUSE WITHIN THE FAMILY sexual abuse: inappropriate sexual activity between an adult anda child for the perpetrator's pleasure or benefit; the abuse may be direct (sexual contactof any type) or indirect (exposing a child to pornor to the live exhibition of body parts or sexual acts) • child abuse is more likely to occur in large families to children under age 4 and to children with physical and intellectual deficits or who exhibit excessive fussiness and crying • parents who abuse their children are frequently involved in a distressed marriage; have been abused themselves; are unemployed, poorly educated,and economically deprived • consequences of child abuse include less secure attachment in infants; problems with emotional regulation and aggressive behaviour in toddlers; poor relations with peers/adults; academic problems; and low self-esteem as children get older; brain dysfunction; mental retardation; neuromotor deficits; physical handicaps; death CHAPTER 12 - EXPANDING THE SOCIAL WORLD: PEERS ANDFRIENDS HOW PEER INTERACTIONS BEGIN: DEVELOPMENTAL PATTERNS Infancy: First Social Encounters • in first 6th months of life, they touch and look ateach other and are responsive to each other's behaviour • as children develop competence in interacting withpeers, they shift toward increased social play and exhibit a clear preference for playing with peers rather than adults Social Exchange among Toddlers • between ages 1 and 2, children make gains in locomotion and language that increase the complexity of their social exchange. During this period, they develop the capacity to engage in complementary social interaction Types of play in preschool age children • solitary play: they play by themselves, generally ignore other children. • parallel play: two children play in similar activities, side by side, but do not engage one another, common in 3-4 yo • associative play: children play with other children butdon't necessarily share the same goals or agendas. They share toys and materials, and they may evenreact to or comment on another child's activities. They are still not fully engaged with each other in a joint project. Common in 3- 4 yo and less often in 2yo • co-operative play: 3-4yo, children begin to engage in this sophisticated play in which they work together and share common goals. Building a sand castle, drawing a picture together, etc. relationship: a succession of interactions between two people whoknow each other that is altered by their shared, past interactions and that also affects their future interactions HOW DO PEERS HELP TO SOCIALIZE CHILDREN? Modelling Behaviours • children imitate their peers and older, more powerful, peer models • important in maintaining social interactions Teaching and Reinforcing • reinforce: to pay attention to another's behaviour, to praiseit or criticize it, or to share it Social Comparison and the Developing Self social comparison: the process of evaluating one's characteristics, abilities, values, and other qualities by comparing oneself with others, usually one's peers • children display a marked increase in their use ofsocial comparison during elementary years • they compare themselves to peers to see how good they are (reading vs class mates) PEER ACCEPTANCE How Do We Study Peer Acceptance? sociometric technique: a procedure for determining children's status within their peer group in which peers nominate others whom they like best or leastor rate each child in the group for her likeabilityor desirability as a companion popular children: children who are liked by many peers and disliked by very few average children: children who have some friends but are not as wellliked as popular children neglected children: children who tend to be socially isolated and, though they have few friends, are not necessarily disliked by others controversial children: children who are liked by many peers but also disliked by many rejected children: children who are disliked by many peers and liked by very few aggressive rejected children: rejected children who are characterized by high levels of aggressive behaviour, low self-control, and behavioural problems non-aggressive rejected children: rejected children who tend to be withdrawn, anxious, and socially unskilled Factors Than Affect Peer Status • the single most significant factor is a child's cognitive and social skills 0 his ability to initiate interactions with others, to communicate effectively and interact comfortably with them • physical characteristics • gender, name, age Consequences of Being Unpopular • excluded from activities • deny others access to other people or objects • victimized by classmates • status typically does not change reputational bias: children's tendency to interpret peers' behaviour on the basis of past encounters with and feeling about them PROMOTERS OF PEER ACCEPTANCE: PARENTS AND TEACHERS • parents play an important role in promoting a child's peer relations • serve as partners with whom the child acquires social skills that help him interact with other children by giving advice and support, reinforcinguseful behaviours, modelling strategies for conduct with peers • provide opportunities for peer interaction throughtheir choice of neighbourhood and their willingness to schedule visits with friends • teachers can play an import role in helping children improve social skills • coaching children in more effective ways of communicating and in change conditions of children's environment WHEN PEERS BECOME FRIENDS friendship: a reciprocal commitment between two people who seethemselves as relative equals Expectations and Obligations of Friendships 1. Reward-cost stage (gr 2-3):children expect friends to offer help, share commonactivities, provide stimulating ideas, be able to join in organized play, offer judgments, be physically nearby, and be demographically similar to them 2. normative stage (gr 4-5): children now expect friends to accept and admire them, to bring loyalty and commitment to a friendship, and to express similar va
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