Anticonvulsive drugs have been proven ineffective in controlling seizures
New technique: removing parts of medial temporal lobes, including hippocampus.
The idea was to stop seizure which originated in temporal lobes. Surgery was successful, but
patient lost ability to form new long-term memories. He could store info but not remember!
Memory- capacity to acquire + retain useable skills +knowledge.
Memory is a story that alters through tellings and retellings.
What you pay attention to becomes your short-term memory, and any unrehearsed info is lost.
Short-term memory encodes to long-term memory, which may be lost over time.
Modal memory model: 3-stage sys. that involves sensory memory, short and long term memory.
Modal means standard. People believe multiple memory systems that dont follow 3-stage sequence.
Sensory memory- temporary sensory buffer, info stored briefly like a smell or an image.
Visual sensory memory is called iconic memory and auditory sensory memory is called echoic.
Experiment: rows of letters flashed then followed by delay periods. Result: people recalled more
info when the delay periods were shorter, and less when they were longer.
Conclusion: iconic memory persisted for a short time, and then sensory memory fades.
Both iconic and echoic memories allow us to view the world as a CONTINUOUS STREAM.
Info we pay attention to is passed to short-term memory (STM) limited +brief capacity (20s)
Also known as immediate memory, like a computer RAM, info lost if not saved.
STMs memory span: 7 items + or 2. varies among people. IQ tests measure this!
Meaningful units are easier to remember than nonsense units (if you give smthg meaning)
Chunking- organizing info into meaningful units ->more you chunk, easier to remember
Example: chess players can reproduce arrangement of pieces, but if the arrangement is
random and makes no chess sense then they have a hard time remembering it too!
In general, the greater your expertise with material, the more you can remember. The ability to
chunk info relies on our long-term memory!! STM is not a single storage sys: stores sounds, images,
3 part active memory system called working memory: keeps different types of info available for
current use. (problem solving, reasoning, comprehension). Three components:
www.notesolution.com 1. Central executive: is the boss filters info from sensory sys and stores in long term
memory. Relies on 2 subcomponents that hold auditory +visual info:
2. phonological loop: encodes auditory info. The inner voice when you read helps with
meaning. People make mistakes with constanst that SOUND alike not look alike. (G and T not
3. visuospatial sketchpad: processes visual info location + features of object.
Longterm memory(LTM) is limitless. LTM differs from STM in 2 ways: duration +
Initially people though STM and LTM were separate based on recall of words displayed.
Better recall of early and late items is known as serial position effect. Primacy effect
you remember first items first, and recency effect- we have better memory with recent items.
Primacy effects are due to LTM, and recency effects are due to STM
Overlearning- rehearsing material leads to improved long-term memory
Distributed practice- learning thing over a period of time, rather than briefly lead to
improved memory too, not massed practice (cramming)!
Only info that is meaningful to us is stored too! (think evolutionary theory toosurvival)
There are different types of memories, not just one:
1. Explicit memory (involves conscious effort): processes used to remember specific info, the info
is retrieved in explicit memory is know as declarative memory, which refers to cognitive info that can
be brought to the mind, it is declared knowledge. -- > can involve words , concepts or images, or all.
(example: what you had for dinner yesterday)
2. Episodic memory(involves conscious effort):: past personal experiences
3. Semantic memory (involves conscious effort): ones knowledge of trivial or important facts
independant of past experiences. (knowing capital names even though you never visited the country!)
Episodic and semantic are SEPARATE. found by experiment: a kid with brain damage and
poor memory for episodic info, can recall facts just not know how they learned the info.
Implicit memory (occurs without deliberate effort) ex. Brushing hair
Example of implicit is procedural memory (motor memory)- involves motor skills, habits to
achieve goal. Stopping at a red light. Consciously thinking about such procedures causes interference.
(for instance, when you think about how you walk, you mess up!)
Implicit memory influences our lives we might like certain ppl cause they remind us of
others, advertisers use this to expose us to certain brands to familiarize us with them.
www.notesolution.com False fame effect: when you can recall someone is famous but not know why or think someone
is famous when they really are not!
Implicit memory is involved in repetition priming: improvement in identifying and processing a
stimulus that has been previously experienced. Experiment: showing people words, and them giving
them blanks, people more likely to say the words previously exposed to rather than other words.
LTM is a temporal sequence:
Memory can be divided into three processes:
1. Encoding- our perceptual experience is transferred into representations, or codes, which are
stored. An example, would be sensing a shaggy four-legged animal, and perceiving dog dog=code
2. Storage- retention of encoded representations over time, stored representations are memories.
3. Retrieval- recalling or remembering stored info (both explicit + implicit)
Memories are stored by meaning. The more deeply an item is encoded, the more meaning it has.
Diff. types of rehearsal lead to diff. encoding:
1. Maintenance rehearsal- repeating item over and over
2. Elaborative rehearsal- encoding info in a meaningful way (thinking about it!)
Things processed at a deep level (elaborative rehearsal) are recalled + remembered better!
Schemas- hypothetical cognitive structures that help perceive, organize, process, and use info.
Schemas help make sense of the world altering a story with missing details (people change
story to fit their OWN cultural standpoint, example in class!!)
When we link things to things we already know (instructions about laundry). Aristotle- our
knowledge of the world is organized so that things that naturally go together are linked together in
Networks of associations- base of theories of memory organization. A unit of info in the
network is called node, when one node is activated others are too (called the spreading activation
model!) The closer the nodes, the stronger the association. (ex: sunrise and sunset or apple and cherry)
The semantic network of association is organized in a hierarchical way easy access to info
Retrieval cues- access infro from LTM easier to regonize (seeing smthg) info then recall it!
Encoding Specificty principle: a stimulus that is encoded along with experience can trigger
memory (studying in the same room as giving your test will help you do better, example from class!!
This enhancement of memory is called context-dependant memory, things like odours, music,
www.notesolution.com When your memoery is enchanced because of the internal state being the same as when the info
was being encoded then recalled, that is called state-dependant (studying drunk for example)
Engram- physical site of memory storage. Conlusion however was that memory was distributed
through out the brain and linked together, an idea known as equipotentiality.
Temporal lobes (including amyglada, rhinal cortex, and hippocampus) important for declarative
memory, less implicit. Damage to this area causes anterograde amnesia, which is inability to store
new explicit memories but you can still access old memories (like HM patient)
Basal ganglia important for classical conditioning and amyglada for fear learning
Consolidation- transfer of info from immediate memory to LTM (results from changes in the
strength of neural connections.
Memory for sensory experiences involves reactivating the cortical circuits involved in perceiving
them. (when you see an object, a part of your brain lights up, when you recall it, same part lights up )
The medial temperol lobes are responsible for directing this acting like pointers + linkers
Once memories are activated, they need to ne consolidated again in order to be stores, this
process is known as reconsolidation. ( you take a book out, but you gotta put it back in the shelf)
But when reconsolidizing, changes are made, then our memories change. Fro example, this is
why we change stories everytime to retell them.
Monkey has to remember reward is under specific object (hippocampus + rhinal cortex being
used! for declarative memory!!) Another function of hippocampus: spatial memory- example: rat
learns maze in murky water, learns path. But a rat with the hippocampus can.
The role of hippocampus is supported by place cells, neurons that fire only when rat returns to a
specific location, in maze, familiarity with environement increase with help of hippocampus
Animals, such as birds, that rely on memory to find stored food hidden, ha