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definitions for term test

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Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Psychological Science Themes of Psychological Science 1. The principles of psychological Science are cumulative Research on mind, brain and behaviour has accumulated over time 2. A new biological revolution is energizing research A new biological revolution of profound significance is in progress at the dawn of the 21 st century, bringing with it a deeper understanding of the human mind and behaviour 3. A mind is adaptive Evolutionary theory: a theory that emphasized the inherited, adaptive value of behaviour and mental activity throughout the entire history of a species Natural selection: Darwins theory that those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to their particular environment have a selective advantage over those who do not Adaptations: in evolutionary theory, the physical characteristics, skills or abilities that increase the chances of reproduction or survival and are therefore likely to be passed along to future generations Culture: the beliefs, values, rules and customs that exist within a group of people who share a common language and environment and that are transmitted through learning from one generation to the next Norms: specify how people ought to behave in different contexts 4. Psychological science crosses levels of analysis The mind and behaviour can be studied on many levels of analysis Category Levels What is studied? Social Cultural Norms, beliefs, values, symbols, ethnicity Interpersonal Groups, relationships, persuasion, influence, workplace Individua Individual Personality, gender, developmental age groups, self- l differences concept Perception an Thinking, decision making, language, memory, seeing, cognition hearing Behaviour Observable actions, responses, physical movements Biological Brain systems Neuroanatomy, animal research, brain imaging Neurochemical Neurotransmitters and hormones, animal studies, drug studies Genetic Gene mechanisms, heritability, twin and adoption studies Amusia: the inability to recognize familiar tunes Social aspects involve an examination of how cultural and social contexts affect the ways people interact and influence each other Individual aspects concern individual differences in personality and mental processes that concern how we perceive and know our worlds Biological aspects deal with how the physical body contributes to mind and behaviour The intellectual origins of psychology Nature-nurture debate: the arguments concerning whether psychological characteristics are biologically innate or acquired through education, experience and culture Schizophrenia: disorder in which people have unusual thoughts such as believing they are God, or experience unusual sensations, such as hearing voices Bipolar disorder: a person has dramatic mood swings, from feeling extremely sad to feeling euphoric Posttraumatic stress disorder: people have intrusive and unwanted memories of their traumatic experiences Mind-body problem: a fundamental psychological issue that considers whether mind and body are separate and distinct or whether the mind is simply the subjective experience of the physical brain; our mind is what our brain does Sensus communis: da Vinci believed to be the home of thought and judgement Dualism: the philosophical idea that the mind exists separately from the physical body yet intertwined (Descartes) Natural selection: the process by which random mutations in organisms that are adaptive are passed along and mutations hinder reproduction are not How did the scientific foundations of psychology develop? Experimental psychology begins with structuralism Introspection: a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts Structuralism: an approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components or elements Functionalism addresses the purpose of behaviour Stream of consciousness: a phrase coined by William James to describe ones continuous series of ever- changing thoughts Functionalism: an approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose or function of mind and behaviour Progressive approach: teaching students according to how the mind processed information rather than simply through repetitive drill learning; emphasized divergent thinking and creativity rather than the rote learning of conventional knowledge that might be incorrect anyway Gestalt psychology emphasizes patterns and context in learning Gestalt theory: a theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its constituent elements Phenomenological approach: observations of ordinary people in investigating subjective experience; refers to the totality of subjective conscious experience The unconscious influences everyday mental life Unconscious: a term that identifies mental processes that operate below the level of conscious awareness Psychoanalysis: a method developed by Sigmund Freud that attempts to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed www.notesolution.comFree association: people would simply talk about whatever they wanted to for as long as they wanted to; Freud believed that people would eventually reveal the unconscious conflicts that were causing them problems Most behaviour can be modified by reward and punishment Behaviourism: a psychological approach that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing behaviour How people think affects behaviour Cognitive psychology is concerned with higher order mental functions such as intelligence, thinking, language, memory and decision making Information processing theories of cognition viewed the brain as the hardware that ran the mind as software Social situations shape behaviour Social psychology focuses on the power of situation and how people are shaped through their interactions with others Psychological therapy is based on science People can come to know and accept themselves in order to reach their unique potentials How can we apply psychological science? Subdisciplines focus on different levels of analysis Psychological scientist: one who uses the methods of science to study the interplay between brain, mind and behaviour and how the social environment affects these processes Psychological practitioners: those who apply findings from psychological science in order to assist people in their daily lives Social psychologists: focus on the influences that other situations and people have on how we act, think and feel Personality psychologists: interested in individual preferences such as how certain types of people might prefer certain types of music Developmental psychologists: address changes in mind and behaviours over the life span and so they might study how children learn the basic structure of music or how musical preferences change as one grows older Cognitive psychology: concerned with mental processes such as thinking, perceiving, remembering and decision making and so researchers in this area might be interested in how people perceive various aspects of music as well as how much changes the way people think Cognitive neuroscience: would seek to understand the brain systems involved in the perception of music and how they might differ from the parts of the brain involved in ordinary auditory processing Behavioural neuroscientists: study the biological mechanism responsible for behaviour Experimental psychopathologists: study abnormal or disordered behaviour Critical thinking: a systematic way of evaluating information in order to reach reasonable conclusions Chapter 2 research methodology What is scientific inquiry? Steps in research Example Formulate hypothesis People who are intoxicated will show less motor coordination than people who have not drunk alcohol Design study Plan an experiment in which you give alcohol to one group and no alcohol to a control group. Alternatively, compare people before and after drinking alcohol
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