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Detailed Text Notes: Chap 2- Judaism (more detailed than needed for the exam, but good summary if you didn't read the text

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Andre Maintenay

Key people and facts: Principal founders: Abraham and his wife Sarah1700 B.C.E. Isaactheir son, and his wife Rebecca JacobIsaac and Rebekahs son, [also called Israel], his two wives Leah and Rachel. Moseslegendary prophet who received the 10 Commandments on Mount Sinai [1200 B.C.E.] Saul, David, Solomonsemi legendary kings [1000900 B.C.E.] Leaders: Ezrahelped build the second Temple [515 B.C.E.] Yohana ben Zakkai- found his first rabbinic Academy 70 CE. Judah the Prince produced the Mishnah [220 CE] Authoritative texts: The Hebrew Bible: Talmud Midrash (Commentaries) Noteworthy doctrines: - All the righteous of the world can be saved; God has commanded the Jews to serve special laws, including dietary and dress code. A Ritual Institution: Sees human history as a reflection of the desires and demands of God. Thought to be founded at Mount Sinai more than 3200 years ago, when a divine revelation was given through Moses to the people of Israel The covenant [agreement] with God, sealed at Mount Sinai established a set of moral and virtual obligations that continue to govern Judaism today. Bar mitzvah-Aramaic for son of the Commandments Sabbath- The Day of Rest for Jews, Saturday. The Day for Prayer and Public Assembly In the Synagogue. Bar Mitzvah Ceremony-The Teenager Reads Two Sections from the Bible PentateuchThe Five Books of Moses. Constitutes the First Section of the Bible. Later Sections Called The Prophets. The Torahconsists of the Hebrew Bible itself and commentaries on it. The term also refers specifically to the first five books of the Bible, hand written on parchment scrolls. The only way in which Jews differ from anyone else is that they have been given the special responsibility of studying and observing the Torah. Defining Judaism Judaism gave rise to other world religions: Christianity and Islam. The belief in one God originated with Judaism. Major divisions are based more on differences in ritual and practice than in belief or doctrine contrasted with Christianity in which belief and doctrine are the defining issues that distinguish one denomination from another. Second covenantgiven to Moses by God at Mount Sinai following floods. - God promises: I shall be your God and you shall be my people -Jews understand themselves to be Gods special people not that their preferred above others, but that they have been elected to special responsibility: to serve as Gods priests in the world Origins: The Biblical Period: Jewish beliefs range from the liberal wing excepting modern historical principles, questioning the accuracy and historical context of the Bible, more traditional Jews believe in the literal interpretation of the texts, believing that Scripture to up and transmitted to the prophets by divine inspiration. Earliest reference to Israelites find other peoples found in Egypt dating roughly 1230 BC. Creation in Genesis: -First 11 chapters of Genesis describe the primeval history of the universe. It describes how God created the heaven and the earth, with different things on each day of creation, culminating with humanitymale and female on the sixth day. - God rests on the seventh day- establishing tradition of the Sabbath - Sabbath: starting at sundown Friday night, ending sundown Saturday. -First creation story emphasizes human should never worship created objects like the Sun the moon and the stars. -Genesis 2- Adam and Eve navely innocent Genesis 3- peace and harmony are broken, when Adam and Eve defied Gods order and eat from Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. Before this Adam and Eve lack a moral sense between good and evil. The story is about how humans learn to make moral decisions -Jewish interpretation of Eden story largely positive, emphasizes human and moral capacity to choose good over evil, and obeyed Gods laws. Contrast to Christian interpretation, emphasizing original sin, insisting on a deep and sinister relationship between sexuality evil and death The Israelite Narrative - Story of the flood is thought to represent Gods punishment for the evil in mankind. Kills all inhabitants except for the few he arranges to preserve on Noahs Ark. God establishes his covenant survivors promising never again to destroy Earth by flood. -Shortly after Babylonian King attempts to approach Gods level by building a tower to heaven-Gods punishment is to confound human language. Second covenant: - Chapter 12: covenant made between God and Abraham - promises that Abrahams descendents will inhabit the land of Cannan. Land already occupied by others, must be taken over.
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