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St. Michael's College Courses
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Daniel Donovan

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SMC208lecture1Patristic PeriodoLatin word Patres meaning fathersoThis period is from about 200600 bcoGregory I Gregory the great marked the end of the patristic periodoCatholicism during this period is more Greek than RomanoWhen Christianity started to spread the Roman Empire controlled the government oThe New Testament was written in Greek though Jesus spoke Aramaic oAt the time of Jesus there were many Hellenistic Jews one of the most famous is Paul oThe large majority of followers and the bishops of this time were Greek speaking The first ecumenical council in 325 bc had many Greek speaking bishopsoThis period has 4 main thinkers Origen from AlexandriaGregory of NyssaJohn ChrysostomSt Augustine Middle AgesoBetween the Dark Ages and the Renaissance It is the period from about 6001500 bcoBefore 313 BC Christianity is a forbidden religion and the people had no rights After 313 BC it was allowed The late Roman Empire period was Roman CatholicoImportant Thinkers of this periodThomas AquinasBonaventureCatherine of SienaJulian of NorwichSECOND TERM period of the ReformationsModern languages develop but the language of universities and of the literary is Latin The idea of nationalism is dominate in the countries within Europe especially with religionImportant thinkersoMartin LutherBegin the protestant reformationoJohn CalvinHe was a French man and came about a generation after Martin LutheroTeresa of AvilaShe was part of a religious order called the Carmelites They believed in living simple lives She became a reformer oIgnatius of Loyola was the founder of the Jesuits He was from Spain The Jesuits had a strong influence on Catholicism and its development Enlightenment PeriodThis was period that was during the 1800sThere was more emphasis on reason Important thinkers of this period areoFriedrich SchleiermacherHe tries to rethink Christianity in a postenlightenment periodoJohn Henry NewmanHe was AnglicanoKarl BarthoCarl RohnerthWednesday September 15 2010The first real Christian theologians are Paul John and those who wrote the Hebrew LetterApologists means defense they defended Christianity Justin the Martyr 100165ce and Irenaus 115202 ce are apologistsOrigen Alexandria 184254 ceHe is a controversial figure Many people after his death used his ideas and pushed them to the extreme Thus his ideas were taken and exploited and he was blamedHis favorite gospel was the gospel of John This was because the opening of Johns gospel 114 went against the Greek religion stating that humans must find the divine but rather the divine can become connected to the human through the flesh logos word became fleshMost of his writings were lost but he wrote a lot He wrote many of his works in Latin Saint Jerome was a followed of Origen but later changed his mind However Saint Rufinus stayed loyal to Origen which made Jerome madOrigen was very influential even to later saints including Augustine and BasilHe came from a Hellenistic education He lived before the council of Nicea thus he is from the Pre Nicea Nicea took place in 325 ce this was the first ecumenical council This council raised the question on how is the God the Son connected to God the FatherJesus was born in Galilee which was strongly an Aramaic speaking country Galilee was different from the Hellenistic culture which dominated the MediterraneanDue to the fact that Hellenistic people did not understand the importance of Jesus Justin the martyr changed him to the logos Hence the logos became flesh and he is Jesus the man Origen lives in the pre Constantine time Constantine was the emperor who made Christianity legal In 313 ce he established the Edict of Milan which allowed Christianity to be legal and Christians could not be prosecuted unjustly Origen was born in Alexandria a Greek city This was the first time and place where biblical and Greek ideas came together thMONDAY SEPTEMBER 20 2010OrigenHe was not primarily a philosopher he wanted to be a man of the churchHe was a theologianThe focus of Origens interest was the bibleTruth was a very big thing in both Greek culture and Christianity Truth bridges these two cultures together Origen talked about truth as a revealed truth as in the word of GodFor Origen God is the truth and in the bible we find the word of God truth of God The bible is THE book because in it he the truthHe lived in Caesarean Palestine He is made a Presbyterian priest and he began to preach Origen writes commentaries The Christians took over the Hebrew bible and added more to it This was known as the New Testament This bible was translated into Greek called the HexaplaRabbis used only the Hebrew bible and Origen used the Greek Christian bible Rabbis were not sure if the Christian bible was properly translated because there were multiple versions Origen tried to sophisticate the bible to others because the text is not very philosophical or moral Origen did what Philo did and stated that the bible had hidden meaning This explained that the bible has both a literal and spiritual sense The bible was told like a story but it always has a spiritual or deeper sensePeri Archonon first principalThe bible is a storyOrigen tried to explain Christianity to hereticsThe bible is not necessarily full of philosophical meaning or truth it is a story What makes it important is its a story of God and Gods son JesusThe Christian bible has a beginning genesis and an end revelations By reading this bible people began asking ethical questions about the story Like what is the trinity What is a soul How does it relate to the body People believed that they were born Hebrew and became Christian Being Christian meant that you were joining a community but you had to affirm your faith Baptism was a sign in the name of the father son and Holy Spirit This was how the creed was establishedOrigen lists seven thingsoFatheroChristoSpiritoSouloDeviloAngelsoWorldExhortation of MartyrdomAmbrose was an important ChristianHe was arrested and had to deny his faith and adhere to paganismOrigen tells Ambrose not to deny his faith for if he does God will deny him later onIn the Early Church baptism was a way of forgiving sin and joining the religionThere was no act of reconciliationOrigen believed in martyrdom and the fact that it can forgive sin It can forgive the sin of not only the martyr but also those around himherChristians came to see that Jesus death was the perfect sacrificeoDue to his sacrifice he was considered the High PriestoNo one can be like him but martyrsYou get a sense of Origens belief in human life Human life is like the soul The body is a prison for the soul keeping it away from GodSept 22nd2 major thinkerGregory of NyssaFrom a region called Cappadociaa roman province in centraleastern TurkeyDiasporaNew testament ndActs of the apostles2 letter of peterCappadocia was mentionedGregory he wonder worker Icon of CappadociaHe was looking for the truth for the true philosophyHe was blown away by Oregon and became a bishopBecause of this he brought Christianity and connections of Oregon to CappadociaFathers was important word in that areatheologians etcThere were 3 main fathersBasil of caeanea 330371Gregory of Nyssa 335395Gregory of Nazianzus329390They have an enormous impact on ChristianityThey were part of a Christian centered familyMany changes from the time of the Oregon 313ConstantineEdict of MilanLegal status in the roman empireSoon he began to favour Christianity and did many things to support it381Christianity became the official religion of EuropeSoon Religion began to interfere with Bishops and heresy and politicsAll three fathers were influenced by Plato and platoismWhat they took over was a certain way of thinking about God and the human soul
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