PATHWAYS – Study Questions
Lecture 9: Apoptosis
1. What is apoptosis?
2. Why is apoptosis important?
3. What are the different cellular responses to stress? What types of stresses cause each
4. Which type of cell death is more common (apoptosis or necrosis) Why?
5. How do necrosis and apoptosis differ? How are they the same?
6. What are the two types of apoptosis signalling pathways? What are the components of
7. Which phases of cell death are common between the two types of apoptotic signalling
8. How do the two pathways differ? What is important about these differences to the
signalling of the pathway?
9. What are the functions of the proteins involved in each signalling pathway?
10. What activates the intrinsic pathway?
11. What is the importance of cytochrome c to the signalling pathway? Where is it found?
How is it released? What does it form once in the cytosol?
12. Which proteins are part of the Bcl-2 protein family? Which are required for activation?
Which are required for inhibition of the pathways? What are the two models that have
been proposed for how these proteins interact? How does the expression of these proteins
change in tumor cells?
13. Where are caspases cleaved? What is the result of protein cleavage?
14. Which caspases are part of the execution phase? Which are required for protein
15. What are the domains found on caspases? What is the purpose of each domain? Which
domain is found on the different types of caspases?
16. What protein inhibits caspases? How?
17. What are the cellular targets of caspases? Which proteins do they bind to inhibit or
activate each target? What is the result of target binding?
18. What are the death ligands that can bind the receptor? What is the death ligand receptor?
What is the death inducing signalling complex?
19. How does the death inducing signalling complex create a death cascade?
20. How can the death signal be inhibited?
21. How does FADD contribute to the death signal?
22. What are the receptors and ligands that can create a signal?
23. How does p53 contribute to the death signalling pathways? What does it bind to induce
apoptosis? 24. What is the importance of IAPs in anti-apoptotic tumors? How can cancer therapies
target this protein? What effect does targeting this protein cause?
25. What effect does targeting Bcl-2 family proteins have on tumors? Which genes should be
targeted? Why? What is the effect?
26. What is the apoptosis caspase cascade?
27. How do the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways converge?
28. What anti-apoptotic strategies are used by cancer cells?
Lecture 10: Genomic Integrity II – DNA Repair
1. What are the 5 major DNA repair pathways?
2. What type of balance is maintained in the cell in regards to DNA damage? What happens
if the balance is tipped?
3. Why is apoptosis essential for genomic integrity?
4. What are the different pathways that can occur after DNA damage? Which one is the last
5. Which type of DNA damage is the most dangerous? Why?
6. What are the steps to double-stranded DNA repair? Which proteins are part of the
7. What are the pathways the can result from double-stranded DNA repair?
8. What is the MRN complex? How does it participate in double-stranded DNA repair?
Which proteins for this complex?
9. What is the function of ATM in double-stranded DNA repair?
10. How does double-stranded DNA repair act as an anti-cancer barrier?
11. What are the two repair pathways of double-stranded break repair? How do they differ?
Which type of DNA does each repair?
12. Which type of DNA does nucleotide excision repair fix? What are the two pathways?
What are the steps to nucleotide excision repair? Which proteins are found in the repair
complex and what are their functions?
13. Which diseases are associated with nucleotide excision repair?
14. Which type of DNA damage does base excision repair fix? Which proteins are involved
in the repair of this type of damage and what are their functions?
15. What are the steps to base excision repair? Which proteins are involved in each step and
how are they involved?
16. Which type of DNA damage d