Passages for Final Exam.doc

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Department
Classical Studies
Course
Classical Studies 2900
Professor
Beate Gundert
Semester
Winter

Description
Greek and Roman Medicine: Passages Passage # 182, Page 89 Written by: Celsus, (1st c. A.D.) Summary: Significance: Empiricists believed that practices such as dissections were superfluous because they taught you about the in- side of the body, which empiricists believe you did not need to know. They also thought dissection wasnt necessary be- cause once the inside of the body is exposed to air, all of the components will change. Not only did they believe it wasnt necessary, they thought vivisection was cruel and believed that medicine should be used to help and not harm. Empirical direction in medicine accepted only evident causes (external circumstances) as valid and rejected hypotheti- cal theories about hidden causes. They think that it isnt possible to understand what is going on inside the body and that one can only become a skilled physician by observation and experience. They believed that all that counted were the results of your experiments. They based their treatment off of the empirical tripod that summarized these views: 1. Personal observation of cases: (autopsia or seeing for yourself) The physicians expertise (experience - empeiria) is based on trial and error experiments (peira) and subsequent repetition of successful treatments. For example if someone has a cold, they observe the symptoms and then try out certain medications to see if something works. If something does work, then they use the same medication or treatment again. If it repeatedly works, then what is just trial and error is now an experience. Empiricists were especially interested in Hippocratic writings that had to do with observations. Epidemics was of particular interest in which physicians wrote down day by day developments of disease. They were also interested in Hippocratic writings that were based on surgery because they were not based on theory- were based on dislo- cations and bone fractions and not on theory. 2. Recorded observation/experience of others (historia) Collective memory of what had worked in the past as data bank for future use. 3. Inference from what has worked in similar cases Transference of treatment of one type of disease to another, of what has worked on one part of the body to a simi- lar part of the body, or the use of a similar remedy for the same ailment. For example if you know how to teach a growth on an arm and then the person is suffering from a similar growth on the leg, you would apply the same medication for both. Observation becomes especially pertinent in this passage upon observing the wounded and learning this from experi- ence. 1. Passage #184, Page 90 Galen: Heraclidus (129- ca. 210 A.D.) Summary: This passage is a commentary on Hippocrates book On Joints. This passage explains that the femur is con- nected from the top to the pelvis by a ligament. Herophilus and Erisistratus claim that either this ligament at the head of the femur is intact (not a dislocation) or else it is torn and the hip bone slips out. They say that once this happens, you cannot reduce the femur. This passage then states that this wrong and that the femur has been replaced in two children in this case. They also say that Hippocrates also succeeded in replacing the femur. They stated that one should not Greek and Roman Medicine: Passages base this on theory, but recognize that sometimes there might not be a complete tearing of the cord, but a relaxation caused the femur to slip out. Significance: This passage shows empirical directed medicine. The empiricists did not believe that knowledge about the in- side of the body is necessary, but believed that treatment should be based on observation and experience. They also believe in the empirical tripod which stated that: 1. Personal observation of cases: (autopsia or seeing for yourself): can see this when they state that theyve done it The physicians expertise (experience - empeiria) is based on trial and error experiments (peira) and subsequent repetition of successful treatments. For example if someone has a cold, they observe the symptoms and then try out certain medications to see if something works. If something does work, then they use the same medication or treatment again. If it repeatedly works, then what is just trial and error is now an experience. Empiricists were especially interested in Hippocratic writings that had to do with observations. Epidemics was of particular interest in which physicians wrote down day by day developments of disease. They were also interested in Hippocratic writings that were based on surgery because they were not based on theory- were based on dislo- cations and bone fractions and not on theory. 2. Recorded observation/experience of others (historia): can see this from the text on Hippocrates Collective memory of what had worked in the past as data bank for future use. 3. Inference from what has worked in similar cases Transference of treatment of one type of disease to another, of what has worked on one part of the body to a simi- lar part of the body, or the use of a similar remedy for the same ailment. For example if you know how to teach a growth on an arm and then the person is suffering from a similar growth on the leg, you would apply the same medication for both. Can also see that Hippocrates at this time was very respected and considered the lover of truth. Empiricists focused on: Symptamatology Pharmacology Surgery Hippocratic surgeries. Passage # 187 This is by Celsus, our Roman medical historian from the 1st c. B.C. He is talking about contemporary medicine that is adapted to Roman lifestyle and ideas. Summary: Themison and other Methodists thought that cause of a disease has nothing to do with treatment and that it is sufficient to observe commonalities amongst different diseases and treat based on these commonalities. These charac- teristics can be constriction, flux or a mixture of the two. These diseases can further be classified into acute and chronic with three different phases: an increase, a constant plateau and a diminishing phase. Once a physician recognizes the symptoms of the disease, the body must be treated with a medication which will have the opposite effect on the body that the disease does. For example, a disease characterized by constriction must be treated with a relaxing treatment. There must also be treatments tailored to acute and chronic diseases and treatments for the different phases of a dis-Greek and Roman Medicine: Passages ease. These types of observations characterize Methodists and they are distinct from Dogmatists and Empiricists. They disagree with Dogmatists because Dogmatists believe that in order to treat a patient you need to know the cause of the disease; Methodists deny cause and do not believe that medicine should be based on hidden things. They do not agree with Empiricists which hold that medicine should be based on observation, and that experience is based on repeated observation. Significance: This passage explains Methodists and compares their ideas to Dogmatists and Empiricists. Methodists are dif- ferent from other medicinal arts such as the Dogmatists and Empiricists. They disagree with Dogmatists because Dogmatists believe that in order to treat a patient you need to know the cause of the disease; Methodists deny cause and do not believe that medicine should be based on hidden things. They do not agree with Empiricists which hold that medicine should be based on observation, and that experience is based on repeated observation. The Methodists in- stead hold that medicine should examine common characteristics among diseases and believe that it is sufficient to ob- serve general conditions of each disease in order to treat the disease. In order to study the Methodist development, Pre-Socratics must quickly be considered. A Pre-Socratic named Dem- ocritus developed a system in which the world consists of a combination of atoms which come together to make up the parts that we can see. Epicurus and also believe in this atomic system. In the last 2nd c. B.C. and early 1st c. B.C., Asclepiades established a similar system as the atoms for the body, saying that the body consists of little bodies (corpuscles) which by their contribution form passages. These passages are wider or narrower depending the size, form, position and arrangement of the corpuscles. Through these passages, other corpuscles pass in the form of bodily fluids (blood or pneuma). Health consists of a proper relationship between p
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