71-240 Management and Organizational Life- Study Notes.docx

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Brad Kobe

71-240: Management and Organizational Life- Study Notes Chapter 1: What is Organizational Behaviour? Defining Organizational Behaviour Organizational Behaviour- A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behaviour within organizations; the aim is to apply such knowledge toward improving organizational effectiveness Why do we Study OB?  To learn about yourself and others  To understand how the organizations you encounter work  To become familiar with team work  To help you think about the people issues faced by managers and entrepreneurs What do we Mean by Organization? Organization- a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of a group of people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.  75% of Canadian business have less than 10 people  45% of Canada’s GNP comes from small and mid-sized businesses The Importance of Interpersonal Skills  Recognition of the importance of developing interpersonal skills is closely tied to the need for organizations to get and keep high-performing employees.  Creating a pleasant workplace makes good economic sense. o Companies with reputations as good places to work have been found to generate superior financial performance. Today’s Challenges in the Canadian Workplace Basic OB Model: three levels of analysis considered in OB Challenges at the Individual Level 1. Individual Differences: everyone enters with different values, personality characteristics, perceptions and attitudes  The organization cannot change these  It has a large effect on individual behaviour 2. Job Satisfaction  Produces quality performances  Provides intrinsic rewards  Results in less absenteeism and turnover 3. Motivation  Only 24% employees claim to have received recognition  Necessary for consistent good performance 4. Empowerment: giving employees responsibility for what they do  Managers are learning to give up control  Less bosses, more coaches, advisers, sponsors, facilitators  Employees are learning to be more responsible and are making decisions  Less employees, more associates, teammates 5. Behaving Ethically  Ethics: the study of moral values or principles that guide our behaviour and inform us whether actions are right or wrong  Competition puts pressure to cut corners  No one wants to be a whistle blower Challenges at the Group Level Group behaviour is a sum of all individual behaviour. 1. Working With Others  Focus is on interpersonal skills, team building, and priority management 2. Workforce Diversity: the mix of people in organizations in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation, age, and demographic characteristics such as education and socio- economic status  Mix of generations- different values and expectations  More females in the workplace  Immigration means racially diverse workplace  Can be improved by diversity training and benefit programs that are family friendly Challenges at the Organizational Level 1. The Use of Temporary (Contingent) Employees  Downsizing has eliminated a lot of permanent jobs  Temporary workers have a lack of job security and stability  They don’t identify with the organization and lack commitment  They are very hard to motivate 2. Improving Quality and Productivity  Productivity: A performance measure including effectiveness and efficiency.  Effectiveness: The achievement of goals.  Efficiency: The ratio of effective work output to the input required to produce the work.  A company wants to be effective (reaching goals of quality) at the highest efficiency (high output, low cost) to be fully productive 3. Developing Effective Employees  Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB): Discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.  Leads to employees performing beyond expectations  Being constructive, helpful, enthusiastic, etc. 4. Putting People First  Putting people first generates a committed workforce, and positively affects the bottom line.  People will work harder when they feel they have “more control and say in their work.”  How to put people first?  Provide employment security.  Hire people who have the right skills and abilities.  Create self-managed teams that have decision-making power.  Pay well, and tie pay to organizational performance.  Provide extensive training for skills, knowledge, and initiative.  Reduce status differences so that all employees feel valued.  Share information about organizational performance. 5. Helping Employees with Work-Life Balance  Employees are increasingly complaining of increasing stress because the lines between work and private life have blurred  Creation of global organizations; the world never sleeps  Communication technology; people bring work home  Organizations are asking employees to work longer hours  Organizations must help employees stri
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