Psychology 1000 Final Exam Review
Individuality and consistency
The distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a
person's responses to life situations.
Characteristics of behaviours seen as reflecting a personality:
Components of identity: thinking, feeling and acting
Perceived internal cause: caused primarily by internal rather than environmental factors.
Perceived organization and structure: the person's behaviours seem to “fit together” in a
Atheory is scientifically useful if it
Provides a framework
Allows us to predict future
Stimulates the discovery of new knowledge.
The Psychodynamic Perspective
Causes of behaviour as a dynamic interplay of inner forces that often conflict with one another/
unconscious determinants of behaviour.
Freud worked with Jean Charcot dealing with patients with conversion hysteria.
Convinced Freud that an unconscious part of the mind exerts great influence on behaviour. He
began to experiment with various techniques to access the unconscious mind:
Free association (saying whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing)
Psychoanalysis became a theory of personality, an approach to studying the mind, and a method
for treating psychological disorders.
Psychic Energy and Mental Events
Freud considered personality as an energy system
Instinctual drives generate psychic energy (hydraulic models/steam engine based)
Abuildup of energy from sexual drives might be discharged directly in the form of sexual
activity or indirectly through other behaviours.
Mental events may be conscious, preconscious (can become aware of) or unconscious.
Freud: unconscious mind most important, beyond our awareness. Only when impulses from the
unconscious are discharged some way, such as in dreams, slips of the tongue, etc.
The Structure of Personality (Freud)
Exists totally within the unconscious mind—irrational
Innermost core of the personality
Present at birth
Source of all psychic energy. The pleasure principle: seeks immediate gratification or release, regardless of anything
functions primarily at a conscious level
Operates according to the reality principle: tests reality to decide when the id can safely
discharge its impulses and satisfy its needs.
Compromise between the demands of the id, the constraints of the superego, and the
demands of reality. “Executive of the personality.”
The moral arm of the personality: value and ideals of society
Developed by the age of 4 or 5
The superego strives to control the instincts of the id, particularly the sexual and
aggressive impulses that are condemned by society. Tries to block gratification
Moralistic goals take precedence over realistic ones
Anxiety results from ego
Anxiety serves as a danger signal and motivates the ego to deal with the problem at hand.
Defence mechanisms: deny or distort reality. Release of impulses from the id in
Freud proposed that children pass through a series of psychosexual stages during which the id's
pleasure-seeking tendencies are focused on specific pleasure-sensitive areas of the body
called erogenous zones.
Fixation: a state of arrested psychosexual development in which instincts are focused on a
particular psychic theme.
We develop our personality as we pass through erogenous zones. If there is either
excessive or inadequate gratification at a particular stage, then fixation at that stage
occurs and adult personality is affected.
Freud's theory of psychosexual development is the most controversial part of his work.
Psychoanalytic Ego Defence Mechanisms Defence Description Example
Repression An active defensive process Aperson who was sexually abused in
through which anxiety-arousing childhood develops amnesia for the
impulses or memories are pushed event.
into the unconscious mind.
Denial Aperson refuses to acknowledge Aman who is told he has terminal
anxiety-arousing aspects of the cancer refuses to consider the
environment. Emotions or event. possibility that he will not recover.
Displacement An unacceptable or dangerous Aman who is harassed by his boss
impulse is repressed, and then experiences no anger at work, but then
directed at a safer substitute goes home and abuses his wife and
Intellectualization The emotion connected with an Aperson who has been rejected in an
upsetting event is repressed, and important relationship talks in a highly
the situation is dealt with as an rational manner about the “interesting
intellectually interesting event. unpredictability of love relationships.”
Projection An unacceptable impulse is Awoman with strong repressed desires
repressed, and then attributed to to have an affair continually accuses
(projected onto) other people. her husband of being unfaithful to her.
Rationalization Aperson constructs a false but Astudent caught cheating on an exam
plausible explanation or excuse justifies the act by pointing out that the
for an anxiety-arousing behaviour professor's tests are unfair and, besides,
or event that has already everybody else was cheating, too.
Reaction An anxiety-arousing impulse is Amother who harbours feelings of
formation repressed, and its psychic energy hatred for her child represses them and
finds release in an exaggerated becomes overprotective of the child.
expression of the opposite
Sublimation Arepressed impulse is released in Aman with strong hostile impulses
the form of a socially acceptable becomes an investigative reporter who
or even admired behaviour. ruins political careers with his stories.
Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development
Stage Approximate Erogenous Key Task
Oral 0–2 Mouth Weaning
Anal 2–3 Anus Toilet training
Phallic 4–6 Genitals Resolving Oedipus complex
Latenc 7–puberty None Developing social relationships
Genital puberty on Genitals Developing mature social and sexual
relationships Despite this research interest, a major shortcoming of psychoanalytic theory is that many of its
concepts are ambiguous, not a lot of current work testing psychoanalytic theory.
Accepted nonconscious mental processes, such as automatic processing are very different from
the types of phenomena that Freud placed in the unconscious mind.
Neoanalysts: psychoanalysts who disagreed with certain aspects of Freud's thinking and
developed their own theories. Social and cultural factors understated. Too much emphasis on
AlfredAdler, Karen Horney, Erik Erickson, and Carl Jung
AlfredAdler (1870–1937) insisted that humans are inherently social beings who are motivated
by social interest, the desire to advance the welfare of others. Striving for superiority, which
drives people to compensate for real or imagined defects in themselves (the inferiority complex)
and to strive to be ever more competent in life.
Carl Jung (1875–1961) Analytic psychology: humans possess not only a personal
unconscious but also a collective unconscious that consists of memories accumulated throughout
the entire history of the human race.
Archetypes: inherited tendencies to interpret experience in certain ways. Archetypes find
expression in symbols, myths, and beliefs that appear across many cultures, such as the image of
a god, an evil force, the hero, the good mother, and the quest for self-unity and completeness.
Object relations: the images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other
people as a result of early experience with caregivers.
Melanie Klein, Otto Kernberg, Margaret Mahler and Heinz Kohut
Early attachment experiences to later adult relationships are yielding provocative results.
The concepts in object relations theories are also easier to define and measure, making them
more amenable to research.
Inherent dignity and goodness of the human spirit.
Central role of conscious experience
Individual's creative potential
Strive towards self-actualization: the total realization of one's human potential
Carl Rogers (1902–1987) believed that our behaviour is not a reaction to unconscious conflicts
but a response to our immediate conscious experience of self and environment.
The Self: an organized, consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself
At the beginning, children cannot distinguish between themselves and their environment.
Self-consistency: an absence of conflict among self-perceptions
Congruence: consistency between self-perceptions and experience.
Any experience we have that is inconsistent with our self-concept, including our
perceptions of our own behaviour, evokes threat and anxiety.
The more inflexible people's self-concepts are the less open they will be to their
experience and the more maladjusted they will become.
Need for positive regard: acceptance, sympathy, and love from others.
Need for positive self-regard: love for self
Unconditional positive regard: communicates that the child is inherently worthy of love.
Conditional positive regard: dependent on how the child behaves.
Conditions of worth: when we approve or disapprove of ourselves. Conditions of worth are
similar to the “shoulds” that populate Freud's superego. Fully functioning persons: self-actualized. Do not hide behind masks or adopt artificial roles.
They feel a sense of inner freedom, self-determination, and choice in the direction of their
growth. They have no fear of behaving spontaneously, freely, and creatively. Fairly free of
conditions of worth, they can accept inner and outer experiences as they are.
Self-esteem refers to how positively or negatively we feel about ourselves.
Children develop higher self-esteem when their parents communicate unconditional
acceptance and love, establish clear guidelines for behaviour, and reinforce compliance
while giving the child freedom to make decisions and express opinions within those
The higher one's self-esteem, the greater the vulnerability to ego threats
Rogers proposed that people are motivated to preserve their self-concept by maintaining self-
consistency and congruence self-verification
Self-enhancement: people show a marked tendency to attribute their successes to their own
abilities and effort, but to attribute their failures to environmental factors.
Culture provides a learning context in which the self develops. Individualism vs. collectivism
gender schemas: organized mental structures that contain our understanding of the
attributes and behaviours that are appropriate and expected for males and females
Humanistic theorists focus on the individual's subjective experiences. What matters most is how
people view themselves and the world
People with low self-esteem feel anxious etc. when they achieve success
The Biological Perspective
Goals of trait theorists are to describe the basic classes of behaviour that define personality.
Identifying the behaviours that define a particular trait. GordonAllport/dictionary
Two major approaches: One approach is to propose traits (e.g., “dominance,” “friendliness,” or
“self-esteem”) on the basis of intuition or a theory of personality.
Or the statistical tool of factor analysis: identifies clusters of specific behaviours that are
correlated with one another so highly that they can be viewed as reflecting a basic dimension, or
trait, on which people vary.
introversion-extraversion (or simply extraversion). Negatively/uncorrelated.
Afactor consists of behaviours that are highly correlated with one another and, therefore,
are assumed to have common psychological meaning.
Cattell’s Sixteen Factors
Identified 16 basic behaviour clusters, or factors., developed a widely used a personality test: the
16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Individuals and groups of people.
Eysenck proposed a few basic traits. In his original theory, Eysenck proposed only two basic
dimensions, although he later added a third. Eysenck called his original basic dimensions of
personality Introversion-Extraversion and Stability-Instability.
Third factor Psychoticism-Self Control. Psychoticism: creative, tendency toward nonconformity,
impulsivity, and social deviance.
The Five Factor Model
The Big Five factors: OCEAN! + facets (NEO-PI).
Trait theorists: describe the basic structure of personality + predict real-life behaviour
More-specific dimensions allow for more-accurate behavioural.
Biological perspectives on traits focus on differences in the nervous system, the contribution of
genetic factors, and the possible role of evolution in the development of universal human traits
and ways of perceiving behaviour.
Eysenck believed that extreme introverts are chronically overaroused; their brains are too
electrically active, so they try to minimize stimulation and extreme extraverts are
chronically underaroused. Arousal patters have genetic bases.
Stability-Instability: unstable people have hair-trigger nervous systems that show large
and sudden shifts in arousal, whereas stable people show smaller and more gradual shifts.
Called this instability Neuroticism because he found that people with extremely unstable
nervous systems are more likely to experience emotional problems that require clinical
Cloninger has attempted to link three broad personality traits to differences in the functioning
of specific neurotransmitter systems
Stability vs. Change
Introversion-extraversion, as well as temperamental traits such as emotionality and activity level,
tend to be quite stable from childhood into adulthood. Optimism/pessimism.
People react differently (honesty, conscientiousness) in different situations
Three factors make it difficult to predict on the basis of personality traits:
Traits interact with other traits as well as with characteristics of different situations.
Example, honesty, dominance, and agreeableness, can all influence behaviour in a
Consistency across situations is influenced by how important a given trait is for the
person. Example, a person for whom honesty is part of their self-concept may show
Self-monitoring: People who are high in self-monitoring are very attentive to situational
cues and adapt their behaviour to what they think would be most appropriate.
Evaluating the TraitApproach
Sometimes researchers try to make predictions on the basis of a single personality trait without
taking into account other personality factors that also might influence the behaviour in question.
Sells short the complexity of personality.
Ignores psychological processes that produce the traits. Eysenck's theory of brain arousal is a
Concerned with why someone shows the personality trait Openness, not just that they show the
set of behaviours
NEO-PI scores on the Neuroticism scales were correlated with activity in parts of the temporal
lobe (the insular cortex and superior temporal gyrus). The measure of Extraversion was
associated with the orbitofrontal cortex (medial part) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The insular cortex, associated with Neuroticism = PSTD and some phobias.
The frontal cortex linked to Extraversion plays a role in inhibitory functions such as constraining
impulsive acts such as aggression.
The dorsolateral PFC, is involved in functions that allow the conscious manipulation of
information when one plans, considers different strategies, deals with complex information, and
deals with novelty. Evidence also links the dorsolateral PFC with intelligence, and Openness is
associated with behaving in an “intellectual” way.
Psychodynamic, humanistic, and trait theorists emphasize behaviour from caused from “the
Social Cognitive Theories
Social cognitive theorists such as Julian Rotter (1954, 1966),Albert Bandura (1986, 1999a), and
Walter Mischel (1973, 1999) have combined the behavioural and cognitive perspectives into an
approach to personality that stresses the interaction of a thinking human with a social
environment that provides learning experiences.
Behaviourists emphasize the outside in.”
Social-cognitive theorists focus on both internal and external factors.
According to the social cognitive principle of reciprocal determinism: the person (personality),
the person's behaviour, and the environment all influence one another in a pattern of two-way
The likelihood that we will engage in a particular behaviour in a given situation is influenced by
two factors: expectancy and reinforcement value.
Expectancy is our perception of how likely it is that certain consequences will occur if we
engage in a particular behaviour within a specific situation.
Reinforcement value is basically how much we desire or dread the outcome that we
expect the behaviour to produce.
One of Rotter's most influential concepts is internal-external locus of control: an expectancy
concerning the degree of personal control we have in our lives.
People with an internal locus of control: Believe that life outcomes are largely under personal control and depend on their own
Positively related to self-esteem/personal effectiveness, and deal with stress better.
Less likely to deal with depression or anxiety.
People with an external locus of control believe that their fate has less to do with their
own efforts than with the influence of external factors, such as luck, chance, and powerful
Locus of control is called a generalized expectancy because it is thought to apply across many
The idea that humans are active agents in their own lives. We are self-reflective and self-
regulatory.Agency, not learning phenomenon (Skinner) or anything else. Reciprocal
Human agency is a process, not a trait or a characteristic, and includes four aspects:
Intentionality (we plan), forethought (anticipate outcomes), self-reactiveness (regulation),
and self-reflectiveness (evaluate).
Self-efficacy: their beliefs concerning their ability to perform the behaviours needed to achieve
desired outcomes. People whose self-efficacy is high have confidence. Based on:
Performance attainments in similar/previous situations.
Observational learning: observations of the behaviours to similar models
Verbal persuasion: (dis)encouragement from others
Emotional arousal: enthusiasm or anxiety/fatigue.
Efficacy beliefs are strong predictors of future performance and accomplishment, they become a
kind of self-fulfilling prophesy. When success if attributed to self-competency (internal locus of
control) self-efficacy increases. Goal setting is important for improving self-efficacy:
1. Set specific, behavioural, and measurable goals. The first step in changing some aspect
of your life is to set a goal. The kind of goal you set is very important, because certain
kinds of goals encourage us to work harder, enjoy success, and increase self-efficacy.
2. Set performance, not outcome, goals. Performance goals (what one has to do) work
better than outcome goals because they keep the focus on the necessary behaviours.
1. Set difficult but realistic goals.
2. Set positive, not negative, goals.
3. Set short-range as well as long-term goals.
4. Set definite time spans for achievement
Consistency paradox: although we expect and perceive a high level of consistency in people's
behaviour, the actual level of consistency is surprisingly low.
Cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS), in which both the person and the situation matter
Dynamic interplay between the characteristics that a person brings to the situation (e.g.,
encoding strategies, expectancies, beliefs, goals, emotion, self-regulatory processes) and
the characteristics of the situation. It is this interaction that accounts for behaviour.
If … then … behaviour consistencies: there is consistency in behaviour, but it is found
within similar situations.
Social CognitiveApproach Summary
Brings together two perspectives: the behavioural and the cognitive. The constructs of social cognitive theory can be defined, measured, and researched with
Social cognitive theory suggests that the inconsistency of a person's behaviour across situations
is actually a manifestation of a stable underlying cognitive-affective personality structure that
reacts to certain features of situations.
How to Evaluate Personality
• Methods used by psychologists to assess personality include the interview, behavioural
assessment, remote behaviour sampling, physiological measures, objective personality
scales, and projective tests.
• The major approaches to constructing personality scales are the rational approach, in
which items are written on an intuitive basis, and the empirical approach, in which items
that discriminate between groups known to differ on the trait of interest are chosen.
• The MMPI-2 is the best-known test developed with the empirical approach. The NEO-PI,
developed via the rational approach, measures individual differences in the Big Five
• Projective tests present ambiguous stimuli to subjects. It is assumed that interpretations of
such stimuli give clues to important internal processes. The Rorschach inkblot test and
the ThematicApperception Test are the most commonly used projective tests.
The Nature of Stress
Psychologists have viewed stress in three different ways:
Astimulus, a response, and an organism-environment interaction.
Stressors: eliciting stimuli, or events that place strong demands on us.
Stress also has been viewed as a response that has cognitive, physiological, and behavioural
components such as negative emotions.
a person-situation interaction, or a transaction between the organism and the environment
Stress: a pattern of cognitive appraisals, physiological responses, and behavioural
tendencies that occurs in response to a perceived imbalance between situational demands
and the resources needed to cope with them..
Stressors The greater the imbalance between demands and resources, the more stressful a situation is likely
Catastrophic events often occur unexpectedly and typically affect large numbers of
Major negative events such as being the victim of a major crime
Life event scales: quantify the amount of life stress that a person has experienced over a given
period of time.
The starting point for the stress response is, therefore, our appraisal of the situation and its
implications for us.
1. appraisal of the demands of the situation (primary appraisal);
1. appraisal of the resources available to cope with it (secondary appraisal);
1. judgments of what the consequences of the situation could be;
1. the personal meaning, that is, what the outcome might imply about us.
Distortions and mistaken appraisals can occur at any of the four points in the appraisal process,
causing inappropriate stress responses.
As soon as we make appraisals, the body responds to them.Autonomic and somatic feedback can
affect our reappraisals.
Endocrinologist Hans Selye described a physiological response pattern to strong and prolonged
stressors that he called the general adaptation syndrome (GAS). The GAS consists of three
phases: alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion. Alarm reaction: rapid increase in physiological arousal. Sudden activation of the sympathetic
nervous system and the release of stress hormones by the endocrine system.An increase in heart
rate and respiration, dilates the pupils, and slows digestion.
There is also an endocrine, or hormonal, stress response. Perception of a threat leads the
hypothalamus pituitary gland the adrenal glands.
The adrenal glands cortisol: triggers an increase in blood sugars, suppresses the immune
Persistent secretion of cortisol is associated with a number of serious clinical conditions, such as
depression and anxiety disorders.
The alarm reaction stage cannot last forever, homeostasis results in parasympathetic nervous
system activity. Parasympathetic nervous system functions to reduce arousal.
Resistance, the body's resources continue to be mobilized so that the person can function despite
the presence of the stressor. Resistance can last for a relatively long time, but the body's
resources are being depleted.
Exhaustion, in which the body's resources are dangerously depleted. It is during the stage of
exhaustion that there is increased vulnerability to disease and, in extreme cases, collapse and
Stress and Health
Rape trauma syndrome: for months or even years after the rape, victims may feel nervous and
fear another attack by the rapist. Not enjoy sexual activity.
Statistical relations between stressful life events and psychological distress may reflect a number
of different causal relations. Not just Stress = distress.
stressful life events can function as both cause and effect
Neuroticism: have a heightened tendency to experience negative emotions and get themselves
into stressful situations through their maladaptive behaviours
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents what can happen to victims of extreme stress
and trauma. PTSD is a severe anxiety disorder that is caused by exposure to traumatic life events
—that is, to severe stress. Four major groups of symptoms occur with PTSD:
• severe anxiety, physiological arousal (the stress response), and distress;
• painful, uncontrollable reliving of the event(s) in flashbacks, dreams, and fantasies
• emotional numbing and avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma;
• intense “survivor guilt”
Some individuals with PTSD also show self-destructive and impulsive behaviour.
Within 12 months of combat exposure, 27.8 percent of veterans developed PTSD
Civilian victims of war are even more likely to develop PTSD than are soldiers.
More likely with human perpetrators of traumatic event
Other personal factors contribute to PTSD
PTSD can also increase later vulnerability to other disorders.
Stress and Illness
Stress can combine with other physical and psychological factors to influence the entire
spectrum of physical illness. The secretion of stress hormones by the adrenal gland is an important part of the stress response.
These hormones affect the activity of the heart, and excessive secretions can damage the lining
of the arteries. By reducing fat metabolism, the stress hormones also can contribute to the fatty
blockages in arteries that cause heart attacks and strokes.
Stress also can trigger illness by causing a breakdown in immune system functioning
Stress also can contribute to health breakdown by causing people to behave in ways that increase
the risk of illness.
The hippocampus, important for learning and memory (as discussed in Chapter 3), is especially
sensitive to cortisol causing physical deterioration but also with memory impairment.
mild early life stress strengthens emotional, cognitive, and hormonal resistance to stressors later
Once an animal has received the type of early stimulation that enhances their stress-
recovery, concomitant changes in maternal behaviour allow this to be passed from
generation to generation.
Vulnerability factors: increase people's susceptibility to stressful events. They include
lack of a support network, poor coping skills, tendencies to become anxious or
pessimistic, and other factors that reduce stress resistance.
Protective factors are environmental or personal resources that help people cope more
effectively with stressful events. They include social support, coping skills, and
personality factors, such as optimism.
Social support is one of the most important environmental resources (House et al., 1988)..
Social support protects against stress is by enhancing immune system functioning.
Agreater sense of identity and meaning in their lives, which in turn results in greater
Reduce exposure to other risk factors, such as loneliness, and can increase feelings of control
over stressors. Can apply social pressure to prevent people from coping with stressors in
Pennebaker = the importance of having someone to talk to about upsetting experiences.
Studies of children who have experienced traumatic events have repeatedly highlighted the role
of social support in helping blunt the impact of the terrible stressors they experienced
The Neuroscience of Social Support
The presence of social support may make people less reactive to potentially threatening
situations so that they generate a stress response less often. Modulate activity in the amygdala
and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) which influences the HPA
Individuals with greater social support may respond normally to stress but be better able to cope
with and recover from stress. Modulate activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)
These two explanations are not mutually exclusive.
Cognitive Protective Factors
Hardiness: three beliefs that constituted a stress-protective, the “three Cs” of hardiness
are commitment, control, and challenge.
Hardy people are committed to their involvements, and they believe that what they are
doing is important.
Second, they view themselves as having control over outcomes, as opposed to feeling
powerless to influence events.
The demands of the situations are challenges/opportunities, rather than as threats. Control is apparently is the strongest active ingredient in buffering stress
Coping self-efficacy: the conviction that we can perform the behaviours necessary to cope
Optimism (Harvard study)
TypeA: people tend to live under great pressure and are demanding of themselves and others.
Greater risk for CHD. Guarantees people will encounter stressful situations.
Type B persons, who are more relaxed, more agreeable, and have far less sense of time urgency.
Among the Big Five personality, Conscientiousness seems to have the