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Psychology 1000
John Campbell

Psychology 1000 Final Exam Review Chapter 14 Personality: Individuality and consistency The distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a person's responses to life situations. Characteristics of behaviours seen as reflecting a personality: Components of identity: thinking, feeling and acting Perceived internal cause: caused primarily by internal rather than environmental factors. Perceived organization and structure: the person's behaviours seem to “fit together” in a meaningful fashion Atheory is scientifically useful if it Provides a framework Allows us to predict future Stimulates the discovery of new knowledge. The Psychodynamic Perspective Causes of behaviour as a dynamic interplay of inner forces that often conflict with one another/ unconscious determinants of behaviour. Freud’s theory: Freud worked with Jean Charcot dealing with patients with conversion hysteria. Convinced Freud that an unconscious part of the mind exerts great influence on behaviour. He began to experiment with various techniques to access the unconscious mind: Hypnosis Free association (saying whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing) Dream analysis Psychoanalysis became a theory of personality, an approach to studying the mind, and a method for treating psychological disorders. Psychic Energy and Mental Events Freud considered personality as an energy system Instinctual drives generate psychic energy (hydraulic models/steam engine based) Abuildup of energy from sexual drives might be discharged directly in the form of sexual activity or indirectly through other behaviours. Mental events may be conscious, preconscious (can become aware of) or unconscious. Freud: unconscious mind most important, beyond our awareness. Only when impulses from the unconscious are discharged some way, such as in dreams, slips of the tongue, etc. The Structure of Personality (Freud) The id Exists totally within the unconscious mind—irrational Innermost core of the personality Present at birth Source of all psychic energy. The pleasure principle: seeks immediate gratification or release, regardless of anything The ego functions primarily at a conscious level Operates according to the reality principle: tests reality to decide when the id can safely discharge its impulses and satisfy its needs. Develops second Compromise between the demands of the id, the constraints of the superego, and the demands of reality. “Executive of the personality.” the superego The moral arm of the personality: value and ideals of society Developed by the age of 4 or 5 The superego strives to control the instincts of the id, particularly the sexual and aggressive impulses that are condemned by society. Tries to block gratification permanently. Moralistic goals take precedence over realistic ones Anxiety results from ego Anxiety serves as a danger signal and motivates the ego to deal with the problem at hand. Defence mechanisms: deny or distort reality. Release of impulses from the id in disguised forms. Freud proposed that children pass through a series of psychosexual stages during which the id's pleasure-seeking tendencies are focused on specific pleasure-sensitive areas of the body called erogenous zones. Fixation: a state of arrested psychosexual development in which instincts are focused on a particular psychic theme. We develop our personality as we pass through erogenous zones. If there is either excessive or inadequate gratification at a particular stage, then fixation at that stage occurs and adult personality is affected. Freud's theory of psychosexual development is the most controversial part of his work. Psychoanalytic Ego Defence Mechanisms Defence Description Example Mechanism Repression An active defensive process Aperson who was sexually abused in through which anxiety-arousing childhood develops amnesia for the impulses or memories are pushed event. into the unconscious mind. Denial Aperson refuses to acknowledge Aman who is told he has terminal anxiety-arousing aspects of the cancer refuses to consider the environment. Emotions or event. possibility that he will not recover. Displacement An unacceptable or dangerous Aman who is harassed by his boss impulse is repressed, and then experiences no anger at work, but then directed at a safer substitute goes home and abuses his wife and target. children. Intellectualization The emotion connected with an Aperson who has been rejected in an upsetting event is repressed, and important relationship talks in a highly the situation is dealt with as an rational manner about the “interesting intellectually interesting event. unpredictability of love relationships.” Projection An unacceptable impulse is Awoman with strong repressed desires repressed, and then attributed to to have an affair continually accuses (projected onto) other people. her husband of being unfaithful to her. Rationalization Aperson constructs a false but Astudent caught cheating on an exam plausible explanation or excuse justifies the act by pointing out that the for an anxiety-arousing behaviour professor's tests are unfair and, besides, or event that has already everybody else was cheating, too. occurred. Reaction An anxiety-arousing impulse is Amother who harbours feelings of formation repressed, and its psychic energy hatred for her child represses them and finds release in an exaggerated becomes overprotective of the child. expression of the opposite behaviour. Sublimation Arepressed impulse is released in Aman with strong hostile impulses the form of a socially acceptable becomes an investigative reporter who or even admired behaviour. ruins political careers with his stories. Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development Stage Approximate Erogenous Key Task Age Zone Oral 0–2 Mouth Weaning Anal 2–3 Anus Toilet training Phallic 4–6 Genitals Resolving Oedipus complex Latenc 7–puberty None Developing social relationships y Genital puberty on Genitals Developing mature social and sexual relationships Despite this research interest, a major shortcoming of psychoanalytic theory is that many of its concepts are ambiguous, not a lot of current work testing psychoanalytic theory. Accepted nonconscious mental processes, such as automatic processing are very different from the types of phenomena that Freud placed in the unconscious mind. Neoanalysts: psychoanalysts who disagreed with certain aspects of Freud's thinking and developed their own theories. Social and cultural factors understated. Too much emphasis on childhood. AlfredAdler, Karen Horney, Erik Erickson, and Carl Jung AlfredAdler (1870–1937) insisted that humans are inherently social beings who are motivated by social interest, the desire to advance the welfare of others. Striving for superiority, which drives people to compensate for real or imagined defects in themselves (the inferiority complex) and to strive to be ever more competent in life. Carl Jung (1875–1961) Analytic psychology: humans possess not only a personal unconscious but also a collective unconscious that consists of memories accumulated throughout the entire history of the human race. Archetypes: inherited tendencies to interpret experience in certain ways. Archetypes find expression in symbols, myths, and beliefs that appear across many cultures, such as the image of a god, an evil force, the hero, the good mother, and the quest for self-unity and completeness. Object relations: the images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of early experience with caregivers. Melanie Klein, Otto Kernberg, Margaret Mahler and Heinz Kohut Early attachment experiences to later adult relationships are yielding provocative results. The concepts in object relations theories are also easier to define and measure, making them more amenable to research. Humanistic Theory Inherent dignity and goodness of the human spirit. Central role of conscious experience Individual's creative potential Strive towards self-actualization: the total realization of one's human potential Carl Rogers (1902–1987) believed that our behaviour is not a reaction to unconscious conflicts but a response to our immediate conscious experience of self and environment. The Self: an organized, consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself At the beginning, children cannot distinguish between themselves and their environment. Self-consistency: an absence of conflict among self-perceptions Congruence: consistency between self-perceptions and experience. Any experience we have that is inconsistent with our self-concept, including our perceptions of our own behaviour, evokes threat and anxiety. The more inflexible people's self-concepts are the less open they will be to their experience and the more maladjusted they will become. Need for positive regard: acceptance, sympathy, and love from others. Need for positive self-regard: love for self Unconditional positive regard: communicates that the child is inherently worthy of love. Conditional positive regard: dependent on how the child behaves. Conditions of worth: when we approve or disapprove of ourselves. Conditions of worth are similar to the “shoulds” that populate Freud's superego. Fully functioning persons: self-actualized. Do not hide behind masks or adopt artificial roles. They feel a sense of inner freedom, self-determination, and choice in the direction of their growth. They have no fear of behaving spontaneously, freely, and creatively. Fairly free of conditions of worth, they can accept inner and outer experiences as they are. Self-esteem refers to how positively or negatively we feel about ourselves. Children develop higher self-esteem when their parents communicate unconditional acceptance and love, establish clear guidelines for behaviour, and reinforce compliance while giving the child freedom to make decisions and express opinions within those guidelines. The higher one's self-esteem, the greater the vulnerability to ego threats Rogers proposed that people are motivated to preserve their self-concept by maintaining self- consistency and congruence  self-verification Self-enhancement: people show a marked tendency to attribute their successes to their own abilities and effort, but to attribute their failures to environmental factors. Culture provides a learning context in which the self develops. Individualism vs. collectivism gender schemas: organized mental structures that contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviours that are appropriate and expected for males and females Humanistic theorists focus on the individual's subjective experiences. What matters most is how people view themselves and the world People with low self-esteem feel anxious etc. when they achieve success The Biological Perspective Goals of trait theorists are to describe the basic classes of behaviour that define personality. Identifying the behaviours that define a particular trait. GordonAllport/dictionary Two major approaches: One approach is to propose traits (e.g., “dominance,” “friendliness,” or “self-esteem”) on the basis of intuition or a theory of personality. Or the statistical tool of factor analysis: identifies clusters of specific behaviours that are correlated with one another so highly that they can be viewed as reflecting a basic dimension, or trait, on which people vary. introversion-extraversion (or simply extraversion). Negatively/uncorrelated. Afactor consists of behaviours that are highly correlated with one another and, therefore, are assumed to have common psychological meaning. Cattell’s Sixteen Factors Identified 16 basic behaviour clusters, or factors., developed a widely used a personality test: the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Individuals and groups of people. Eysenck’s model Eysenck proposed a few basic traits. In his original theory, Eysenck proposed only two basic dimensions, although he later added a third. Eysenck called his original basic dimensions of personality Introversion-Extraversion and Stability-Instability. Third factor Psychoticism-Self Control. Psychoticism: creative, tendency toward nonconformity, impulsivity, and social deviance. The Five Factor Model The Big Five factors: OCEAN! + facets (NEO-PI). Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Trait theorists: describe the basic structure of personality + predict real-life behaviour More-specific dimensions allow for more-accurate behavioural. Biological Foundations Biological perspectives on traits focus on differences in the nervous system, the contribution of genetic factors, and the possible role of evolution in the development of universal human traits and ways of perceiving behaviour. Eysenck believed that extreme introverts are chronically overaroused; their brains are too electrically active, so they try to minimize stimulation and extreme extraverts are chronically underaroused. Arousal patters have genetic bases. Stability-Instability: unstable people have hair-trigger nervous systems that show large and sudden shifts in arousal, whereas stable people show smaller and more gradual shifts. Called this instability Neuroticism because he found that people with extremely unstable nervous systems are more likely to experience emotional problems that require clinical attention. Cloninger has attempted to link three broad personality traits to differences in the functioning of specific neurotransmitter systems Novelty-seeking (dopamine) Harm avoidance Reward dependence Stability vs. Change Introversion-extraversion, as well as temperamental traits such as emotionality and activity level, tend to be quite stable from childhood into adulthood. Optimism/pessimism. People react differently (honesty, conscientiousness) in different situations Three factors make it difficult to predict on the basis of personality traits: Traits interact with other traits as well as with characteristics of different situations. Example, honesty, dominance, and agreeableness, can all influence behaviour in a particular situation. Consistency across situations is influenced by how important a given trait is for the person. Example, a person for whom honesty is part of their self-concept may show stability. Self-monitoring: People who are high in self-monitoring are very attentive to situational cues and adapt their behaviour to what they think would be most appropriate. Evaluating the TraitApproach Sometimes researchers try to make predictions on the basis of a single personality trait without taking into account other personality factors that also might influence the behaviour in question. Sells short the complexity of personality. Ignores psychological processes that produce the traits. Eysenck's theory of brain arousal is a exception. Neuroscience Concerned with why someone shows the personality trait Openness, not just that they show the set of behaviours NEO-PI scores on the Neuroticism scales were correlated with activity in parts of the temporal lobe (the insular cortex and superior temporal gyrus). The measure of Extraversion was associated with the orbitofrontal cortex (medial part) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The insular cortex, associated with Neuroticism = PSTD and some phobias. The frontal cortex linked to Extraversion plays a role in inhibitory functions such as constraining impulsive acts such as aggression. The dorsolateral PFC, is involved in functions that allow the conscious manipulation of information when one plans, considers different strategies, deals with complex information, and deals with novelty. Evidence also links the dorsolateral PFC with intelligence, and Openness is associated with behaving in an “intellectual” way. Psychodynamic, humanistic, and trait theorists emphasize behaviour from caused from “the inside out.” Social Cognitive Theories Social cognitive theorists such as Julian Rotter (1954, 1966),Albert Bandura (1986, 1999a), and Walter Mischel (1973, 1999) have combined the behavioural and cognitive perspectives into an approach to personality that stresses the interaction of a thinking human with a social environment that provides learning experiences. Behaviourists emphasize the outside in.” Social-cognitive theorists focus on both internal and external factors. According to the social cognitive principle of reciprocal determinism: the person (personality), the person's behaviour, and the environment all influence one another in a pattern of two-way causal links. Julian Rotter The likelihood that we will engage in a particular behaviour in a given situation is influenced by two factors: expectancy and reinforcement value. Expectancy is our perception of how likely it is that certain consequences will occur if we engage in a particular behaviour within a specific situation. Reinforcement value is basically how much we desire or dread the outcome that we expect the behaviour to produce. One of Rotter's most influential concepts is internal-external locus of control: an expectancy concerning the degree of personal control we have in our lives. People with an internal locus of control: Believe that life outcomes are largely under personal control and depend on their own behaviour. Positively related to self-esteem/personal effectiveness, and deal with stress better. Less likely to deal with depression or anxiety. People with an external locus of control believe that their fate has less to do with their own efforts than with the influence of external factors, such as luck, chance, and powerful others. Locus of control is called a generalized expectancy because it is thought to apply across many life domains. Albert Bandura The idea that humans are active agents in their own lives. We are self-reflective and self- regulatory.Agency, not learning phenomenon (Skinner) or anything else. Reciprocal determinism. Self-reinforcement. Human agency is a process, not a trait or a characteristic, and includes four aspects: Intentionality (we plan), forethought (anticipate outcomes), self-reactiveness (regulation), and self-reflectiveness (evaluate). Self-efficacy: their beliefs concerning their ability to perform the behaviours needed to achieve desired outcomes. People whose self-efficacy is high have confidence. Based on: Performance attainments in similar/previous situations. Observational learning: observations of the behaviours to similar models Verbal persuasion: (dis)encouragement from others Emotional arousal: enthusiasm or anxiety/fatigue. Efficacy beliefs are strong predictors of future performance and accomplishment, they become a kind of self-fulfilling prophesy. When success if attributed to self-competency (internal locus of control) self-efficacy increases. Goal setting is important for improving self-efficacy: 1. Set specific, behavioural, and measurable goals. The first step in changing some aspect of your life is to set a goal. The kind of goal you set is very important, because certain kinds of goals encourage us to work harder, enjoy success, and increase self-efficacy. 2. Set performance, not outcome, goals. Performance goals (what one has to do) work better than outcome goals because they keep the focus on the necessary behaviours. 1. Set difficult but realistic goals. 2. Set positive, not negative, goals. 3. Set short-range as well as long-term goals. 4. Set definite time spans for achievement Walter Mischel: Consistency paradox: although we expect and perceive a high level of consistency in people's behaviour, the actual level of consistency is surprisingly low. Cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS), in which both the person and the situation matter Dynamic interplay between the characteristics that a person brings to the situation (e.g., encoding strategies, expectancies, beliefs, goals, emotion, self-regulatory processes) and the characteristics of the situation. It is this interaction that accounts for behaviour. If … then … behaviour consistencies: there is consistency in behaviour, but it is found within similar situations. Social CognitiveApproach Summary Brings together two perspectives: the behavioural and the cognitive. The constructs of social cognitive theory can be defined, measured, and researched with considerable precision. Social cognitive theory suggests that the inconsistency of a person's behaviour across situations is actually a manifestation of a stable underlying cognitive-affective personality structure that reacts to certain features of situations. How to Evaluate Personality • Methods used by psychologists to assess personality include the interview, behavioural assessment, remote behaviour sampling, physiological measures, objective personality scales, and projective tests. • The major approaches to constructing personality scales are the rational approach, in which items are written on an intuitive basis, and the empirical approach, in which items that discriminate between groups known to differ on the trait of interest are chosen. • The MMPI-2 is the best-known test developed with the empirical approach. The NEO-PI, developed via the rational approach, measures individual differences in the Big Five factors. • Projective tests present ambiguous stimuli to subjects. It is assumed that interpretations of such stimuli give clues to important internal processes. The Rorschach inkblot test and the ThematicApperception Test are the most commonly used projective tests. The Nature of Stress Psychologists have viewed stress in three different ways: Astimulus, a response, and an organism-environment interaction. Stressors: eliciting stimuli, or events that place strong demands on us. Stress also has been viewed as a response that has cognitive, physiological, and behavioural components such as negative emotions. a person-situation interaction, or a transaction between the organism and the environment Stress: a pattern of cognitive appraisals, physiological responses, and behavioural tendencies that occurs in response to a perceived imbalance between situational demands and the resources needed to cope with them.. Stressors The greater the imbalance between demands and resources, the more stressful a situation is likely to be. Microstressors—daily hassles Catastrophic events often occur unexpectedly and typically affect large numbers of people. Major negative events such as being the victim of a major crime Life event scales: quantify the amount of life stress that a person has experienced over a given period of time. The starting point for the stress response is, therefore, our appraisal of the situation and its implications for us. 1. appraisal of the demands of the situation (primary appraisal); 1. appraisal of the resources available to cope with it (secondary appraisal); 1. judgments of what the consequences of the situation could be; 1. the personal meaning, that is, what the outcome might imply about us. Distortions and mistaken appraisals can occur at any of the four points in the appraisal process, causing inappropriate stress responses. As soon as we make appraisals, the body responds to them.Autonomic and somatic feedback can affect our reappraisals. Chronic Stress Endocrinologist Hans Selye described a physiological response pattern to strong and prolonged stressors that he called the general adaptation syndrome (GAS). The GAS consists of three phases: alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion. Alarm reaction: rapid increase in physiological arousal. Sudden activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the release of stress hormones by the endocrine system.An increase in heart rate and respiration, dilates the pupils, and slows digestion. There is also an endocrine, or hormonal, stress response. Perception of a threat leads the hypothalamus  pituitary gland  the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands  cortisol: triggers an increase in blood sugars, suppresses the immune system (anti-inflammatory) Persistent secretion of cortisol is associated with a number of serious clinical conditions, such as depression and anxiety disorders. “fight-or-flight” response. The alarm reaction stage cannot last forever, homeostasis results in parasympathetic nervous system activity. Parasympathetic nervous system functions to reduce arousal. Resistance, the body's resources continue to be mobilized so that the person can function despite the presence of the stressor. Resistance can last for a relatively long time, but the body's resources are being depleted. Exhaustion, in which the body's resources are dangerously depleted. It is during the stage of exhaustion that there is increased vulnerability to disease and, in extreme cases, collapse and even death. Stress and Health Rape trauma syndrome: for months or even years after the rape, victims may feel nervous and fear another attack by the rapist. Not enjoy sexual activity. Statistical relations between stressful life events and psychological distress may reflect a number of different causal relations. Not just Stress = distress. stressful life events can function as both cause and effect Neuroticism: have a heightened tendency to experience negative emotions and get themselves into stressful situations through their maladaptive behaviours PSTD Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents what can happen to victims of extreme stress and trauma. PTSD is a severe anxiety disorder that is caused by exposure to traumatic life events —that is, to severe stress. Four major groups of symptoms occur with PTSD: • severe anxiety, physiological arousal (the stress response), and distress; • painful, uncontrollable reliving of the event(s) in flashbacks, dreams, and fantasies • emotional numbing and avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma; • intense “survivor guilt” Some individuals with PTSD also show self-destructive and impulsive behaviour. Within 12 months of combat exposure, 27.8 percent of veterans developed PTSD Civilian victims of war are even more likely to develop PTSD than are soldiers. More likely with human perpetrators of traumatic event Other personal factors contribute to PTSD PTSD can also increase later vulnerability to other disorders. Stress and Illness Stress can combine with other physical and psychological factors to influence the entire spectrum of physical illness. The secretion of stress hormones by the adrenal gland is an important part of the stress response. These hormones affect the activity of the heart, and excessive secretions can damage the lining of the arteries. By reducing fat metabolism, the stress hormones also can contribute to the fatty blockages in arteries that cause heart attacks and strokes. Stress also can trigger illness by causing a breakdown in immune system functioning Stress also can contribute to health breakdown by causing people to behave in ways that increase the risk of illness. The hippocampus, important for learning and memory (as discussed in Chapter 3), is especially sensitive to cortisol causing physical deterioration but also with memory impairment. mild early life stress strengthens emotional, cognitive, and hormonal resistance to stressors later in life Once an animal has received the type of early stimulation that enhances their stress- recovery, concomitant changes in maternal behaviour allow this to be passed from generation to generation. Vulnerability factors: increase people's susceptibility to stressful events. They include lack of a support network, poor coping skills, tendencies to become anxious or pessimistic, and other factors that reduce stress resistance. Protective factors are environmental or personal resources that help people cope more effectively with stressful events. They include social support, coping skills, and personality factors, such as optimism. Social Support Social support is one of the most important environmental resources (House et al., 1988).. Social support protects against stress is by enhancing immune system functioning. Agreater sense of identity and meaning in their lives, which in turn results in greater psychological well-being Reduce exposure to other risk factors, such as loneliness, and can increase feelings of control over stressors. Can apply social pressure to prevent people from coping with stressors in maladaptive ways Pennebaker = the importance of having someone to talk to about upsetting experiences. Studies of children who have experienced traumatic events have repeatedly highlighted the role of social support in helping blunt the impact of the terrible stressors they experienced The Neuroscience of Social Support The presence of social support may make people less reactive to potentially threatening situations so that they generate a stress response less often. Modulate activity in the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) which influences the HPA Individuals with greater social support may respond normally to stress but be better able to cope with and recover from stress. Modulate activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) These two explanations are not mutually exclusive. Cognitive Protective Factors Hardiness: three beliefs that constituted a stress-protective, the “three Cs” of hardiness are commitment, control, and challenge. Hardy people are committed to their involvements, and they believe that what they are doing is important. Second, they view themselves as having control over outcomes, as opposed to feeling powerless to influence events. The demands of the situations are challenges/opportunities, rather than as threats. Control is apparently is the strongest active ingredient in buffering stress Coping self-efficacy: the conviction that we can perform the behaviours necessary to cope successfully Optimism (Harvard study) Personality Factors TypeA: people tend to live under great pressure and are demanding of themselves and others. Greater risk for CHD. Guarantees people will encounter stressful situations. Type B persons, who are more relaxed, more agreeable, and have far less sense of time urgency. Among the Big Five personality, Conscientiousness seems to have the
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