All Lectures For Entire Course [every lecture] Full Lectures and Comprehensive Notes for the ENTIRE COURSE in a very organized fashion. With this Study Guide, you do not need to go to class! *Key items and terms are bolded and organized accordingly.

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Visual Arts Studio
Visual Arts Studio 1020
Kim Luton

Sociology Notes Lecture 001 Sociology Sociology systematic study of social behavior in human societies. Auguste Compte - Emerging of sociology - A new way of seeing the world - Industrialization - Positivism o Analyze the social world through empirical means Theories - Act as a lens - Theoretical paradigms - Gives us a different perspective on the world - Some Theoretical Paradigms o Structural Functionalism o Conflict Theory o Functionalism o Feminism Structural Functionalism - Macro Level - Broad view on society - Structures o stable patterns of social behavior - Institutions o Subsystems of enduring patterns - Normal state = equilibrium o Change in on structure changes others o Change is disruptive - Consensus about societal values - Every activity has a consequence or function o Manifest Functions Open stated, conscious functions o Latent Functions Unconscious functions / may reflect hidden purposes - There are good and bad functions o Eufunction Positive benefit for society maintain equilibrium o Dysfunction Element or process that is disruptive and will destabilize - Society will fix itself if problems occur restabilize - Critique o Too broad o Focuses on stability at expense of conflict Emile Durkheim - Society = social system - There are needs o Social structures/institutions fill those - Anomie = normlessness o Lack of norms/regulation - Change : mechanical solidarity - > organic solidarity o Mechanical Solidarity people feel connected to each other through similar work/lifestyles think of machine -> mechanical solidarity pre-industrial society simple division of labor. o Organic Solidarity Connectedness comes from interdependence, specialization, and complementation Modern society Think organ -> complicated -> organic solidarity - Investigation of suicide - Looked outward towards society to explain suicides o Egoistic suicides Occur because of lack of social ties Example: men, because they are more independent than women & protestants more likely to suicide because less integrated into the religious community o Altruistic suicide Excessively strong social ties. Example: suicide bombers o Anomic suicide Insufficient regulations, too lax May arise because of rapid social change Feelings of unpredictability and without limits o Fatalistic suicide Too many regulations, too few options Feel trapped Conflict Theory - Macro oriented paradigm - Society = arena of inequality o Generates conflict and social change - Society structured to benefit a few at expense of majority - Dominant group vs. minority group relations o Incompatible interests - Alienation o Capitalism alienates workers in 4 ways From the act of working From the products of work From other workers From human potential Karl Marx - Modes of production o Social processes and social change is based on economic processes o Economic system shapes all other components of society - Ownership of means of production is the basis for other forms of inequality. - Class o comes from who owns what means of production o class conflict antagonism between entire classes of distribution of wealth/power o Class consciousness Recognition of works of unity Workers band together under common oppression - Power o Holds society together o Conflict is natural state o Bourgeoisie (owners) dominate o Proletariat (workers) Own labour power o Revolution is means of change o Eliminate inequalities Eliminate private ownership. - Social institutions o Major spheres of social life o Reflective of dominant class - False consciousness o Explanations of social problems grounded in individuals shortcomings (not societys) - Basically form follows function Symbolic Interactionism - Micro level - social interactions in specific situations - society = product of everyday interactions. o Social construction of reality - Interested in process - Society =shared reality - Symbol o Something that meaningfully represents something else Interaction is symbolic o Differ from culture to culture o Reading cues appropriate behavior - Response to situations is based on their own definition of whats happening - What we define as real, is real in its consequences - Society is shared reality as people interact - Society is complex, ever changing subjective meanings - Learning theory o Individuals learn in a variety of ways - Rational Choice Theory o Microeconomics can explain choices of any issue. Not just money. - Some criticisms o Ignores Larger social structures Effects of culture Factors such as class, gender & race - Max Weber founder o Ppl should learn to empathize o Understand ppl understand setting o Verstehen = understand - George Herbert Mead o Build personalities from interactions o Blank slate - Erving Goffman Canadian o Life is a stage o We play roles
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