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ANTH 3120
Karl Schmid

Coping with tourism 1. Discussion • Regarding enclave tourism, what do you think are some possible solutions for its negative effects? • Can tourism move away from enclave tourism? What are some of the reasons why enclave tourism would be difficult to eliminate altogether? • How can communities become better at capturing the economic benefits of tourism? Shared marketing 2. Coping with tourism • Jeremy Boissevain • What are the possible social and cultural effects of having extensive tourism in your community? Broad tourism impact issues • Questions of presence and pervasiveness – the consumers are coming and staying • Questions of power • Questions of whose interests? –whose going to benefit • What about the ‘host’ and the ‘guest’? – • The industry of forced smiles—the hosts have to smile all the time Some negative issues of tourists • Crowding of roads—tourists drive slowly • Heavy use of public facilities • Inflated prices for food, rent • Infrastructure under pressure • Lack of privacy (photography) • ‘demonstration’ effect –demonstrating affluence that will impact smaller people to get aspired • Scanty clothing –different norms • Loud, lecherous behaviour • Subject of stereotypes –people categorized in particular ways • Divisions within communities • ‘ugly American’ behaviour • Environmental degradation • Environmental degradation • Pricing out of livelihoods Lilo and Stitch video: Cultural tourism • Double-edged: • Negatives but also some relative positives: • Can lead to some infrastructure development • While there may be commoditization of culture, this may result in increased self- confidence, a positive image within the country, valuation of cultural practices • Greater familiarity with “the world” Case study of Goreme, Turkey • People construct houses, churches from the rock chimneys In the 70’s they created guest houses, like caves for tourists to stay at. Questions concerning Goreme • How does a tourist destination develop and change? • What does “local and global coming together” really mean? Does the local change? How do people cope? • How can we understand change and agency at the destination? Hazle tucker suggests that we find a coexistence of different performances and people are acting in a way that they are representing both the local and global. There are 2 ways of relating economically. 1. Capitalist relations—technological developments. 2. Peasant sociality. Peasants and entrepreneurs • “Peasant sociality” and the “limited good” – Before tourism the way of life was farming. A peasant way of life. There was kinship and networks. There was cooperation and also competition. One of the ways peasants competed is through this peasant sociality. They competed to remain equal. This means to try and maintain equality within a particular group and its competing in a way that you demonstrate that you feel those values of equality. Limited good—idea that if someone starts to do much better than others, usually other people are affected by that. If someone becomes more wealthy, they buy more land and it gets rid of the balance. • Capitalist relations and competition— getting ahead of others. Life is about improvement and moving forward, so there should be innovations and technological change. Hazel tucker says these two concepts are at play. Foreign women who came to Goreme started businesses and married Turkish men. Goreme also became a world heritage site. Peasants and entrepreneurs Examples of persistence and change •
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