Midterm 1 Straight from lectures & texts

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
York University
Department
Criminology
Course
CRIM 2652
Professional Police Model/3R’s - Random Patrol patrol cars and watch system, which makes citizens
feel safer, Rapid Response, Reactive Investigation
- slow, reactive, fallible, distancing
- not effective and patrolling officers are rarely present
- reliance of technology is not relying computers and such, can increase the distance of the crime
- Citizen response time as key
- new models of policing have emerged, closing the gap between the police and the community
- need to develop community relations
- Reactive rather than proactive
- Effectiveness? - to place more officers on the street
Blindfolded Maiden (1) Virginal: untouched, untainted, pure, (2) Blindfold: blind to Difference,
(3) Weighing Justice: to balance justice; race, social network, status does not matter to her
- official version of law; these ideas hold our system together to tell us what our system is about
Bow Street Runners London‟s first professional police force; they were similar to the “theif-
takers” men who solved crime for money; wore uniforms and their authority was paid by the
majestry; they don‟t patrol looking for crime; their jobs were to arrest people and their authority can
extend beyond the community and where they started) and “the police” – not professional police forces;
Police force took a long time to emerge in Britain police force does emerge earlier in other European
countries
Civilian Oversight police monitoring over the civilians
Community Policing - Meant to restore policing to a community function or to ensure that the police
maintain contact with and accountable with their daily practises with the community that they serve;
Community policing is a vague term with no specific meaning, Community policing is in the eye of the
beholder whatever people mean in the concept is now the predominate approach in society it‟s not a
thing but an organizing principle it‟s a declaration of goals or a way of setting priorities or values for the
police the goals are to prevent crime and enhance the quality of life but the focus of community policing
is the accountability; this is supposed to be achieved through a partnership of the key community
- i.e. neighbourhood watch programs neighbours set up programs in alliance with the police to try
to prevent crime; foot patrol putting police back to their feet instead of their cars co-
producing safety where the community and the police could work together
- partnerships/balance between police and community
- the citizens are suppose to be the first line of defence and the police respond to problems that are
identified by community matter
- community defines the problems and how police response
- police should be prepared to take directions from the community Laten refers to the shift, from
the thin blue line to the thick blue line
- stresses policing for and with the community to make the police more accountable
Crime Control Model - focuses on the cjs as a way of protecting society through reducing the amount of
laws presumption of guilt; to get rid of the not guilty ones and to keep the guilty ones in; the ones who
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made it to the trial stage should presume as guilty presumption of guilt is descriptive and factual
mindset of agent in the system; funnel works to ensure that only those who are probably guilty remain in
the system; ASSEMBLY LINE: speed + efficiency + uniformity + routine =JUSTICE; police and
prosecutors; focus on society rather than protection
Due Process Model presumption of innocence we must always perceive that each factor may make
mistakes; make sure that those in the system are processed properly in the system quality control:
reliability OVER efficiency; assumes human error; Courts, Defence and civil rights
- They both operate in the Due Process Model
Critiques of Funnel it is flawed; (1) does not tell us where crime comes from; instead it only looks at
how many cases that‟s brought into the system and how many afterwards; only assumes a fixed universe
of crime; disregards the political nature of crime; some theorist thinks that there are no fix figures of
crime; if the funnel worked, system would be full of serious offenders should be the ones who stay in the
system; the vast majority of imprisonment in Canada are for minor theft, those who stay in the system are
the ones with the least resources the poor; reduce loss to protect society; balance CCM and DPM
Crime Net fishing for certain fish; control certain types of people; “Just as the fisherman does not cast
his net randomly, neither do the police” – p. 98; no “loss”; ideological circle – the arrest and prosecution
of certain criminals creates a problem like shoplifting crime more so than white-collared crime; CJS is
not impartial; taking out the good guys during the process; catching the bad guys
Crime Funnel filtering out the bad guys; people get funnelled out and doesn‟t get to the
municipal court; this occur throughout the system; The image of a „funnel‟ refers to the much lower
number of crimes detected and punished by the criminal justice system than the number actually
committed. This model implies that crime is an objective occurrence; it is thought to exist in the qualities
of certain acts without needing to be recognized, identified and officially responded to. This is what is
called a „realist‟ assumption about crime.
Civil vs. Criminal Law
- Civil law (1) civil law and common law British inherited; (2) civil law everything is written
law (3) law that is non-criminal; other bodies of law; pg. 15/16 Griffiths
- Objectives while other forms of law are more focus on compensating when harms done, the
criminal law is focused on punishment power should not be underestimated prosecutions are
not done by individuals but are done on behalf of all of us
- Civil Law: compensation
Criminal Law: punishment
- Whether our crime is interpersonal or not, are irrelevant they are taken into the criminal justice
system on a public interest
- Criminal justice system generates our sense of equality and we give up our freedom to punch our
neighbour in exchange for our freedom to not be punished randomly
- Erosion of democracy in the courts public increasingly removed in direct participation in justice
system b/c we are taking up impersonally by others
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- Public itself gets excluded by the criminal justice system Power of the state to use force and
deny freedoms Nils Christie (1977): “conflicts as property”; experts as “structural thieves
argument talks about our population are supported by the police but are less supported in the
courts etc
- We‟re more likely to encounter police officers than judges – we can relate to police officers than
judges and it‟s committee
Discretion - Police Powers and Discretion
- an organizational imperative there are too many offenses for the police to control and in the context of
fine resources have to prioritize on how they‟re going to apply resources
- Political question re: resources
- Police prioritize cases
- contribute to the decision of when the police does make an arrest that they have the power to do so (i.e.
power to arrest)
- the freedom to choose between different options when confronted with the need to make a decision
Morality play - casting, direction, sides; backstage mechanism: the moral of the story; what is it
that we‟re suppose to see; what story does law tell about itself; law often appears as if it‟s outside
of social life; regulates and mediates social life; the queen wears white gloves if it was a light
case, the queen wears black gloves if there was an execution; all entertainment; people goes to
court to watch the “entertainment”
Sir Robert Peel: Metropolitan Police Act 1829 (Bobbies)
- careful of how he crafted the force; he modelled the uncertain principles most important: the police
were specifically identified for legal reasons
- law legitimates police (it‟s the law that legitimates police)
- impersonal authority (derived from legal powers)
- pg. 125 “Police were quote to seek...” enforce the laws to not abuse it
- Police are kept out of politics and they could not vote until 1885
- they were recruited from outside of London, Britain
- they also wore uniform to separate them from citizen; highly discipline and clear rank/hierarchy and
obedient to authority
- military model of order
- they must appear at all times models not allowed to go to the local pubs
- they were explicitly to maintain a pleasant and civil behaviour to anybody they encounter
- page 124-125 “Principle #7 – Police are the public and public are the police...” – sums up what Peel‟s
trying to achieve
- Summary: origins of a full time professional paid force, relatively new and crafted and developed to
carefully managed and ensure that they are seen as broadly accountable and mutual in principles this is
how police are organized
- new lines of accountability of police through states and laws and not through communities
- prevent crime and maintain order NEW MANDATE (equal protection of everybody)
- The Police professional police force that appeals to these kinds of principles modern term
- Policing has a longer history
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