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Rhetoric Midterm Study Guide

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EN 1006
Rosita Georgieva

Midterm Study Guide Course: AS/EN 1007: Rhetoric: An Historical Introduction: Term: Fall 2011 Course Director: Rosita Georgieva Preparation: re-read lecture and tutorial notes get notes from your classmates if you dont have any exchange emails and form internal study groups to review and discuss all terms together Suggested Topics and Terms for Study Lecture 1: Introduction: - What is rhetoric? Rhetoric is a way of persuasive speaking and writing, but we refer to rhetoric mostly as a verbal art. A discipline that uses skilful organization and effective language to inform, move, and persuade people. An art that has two ends: persuasion, which is audience-directed, and eloquence, which is most often form-and-style-directed (The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, 1046). --Areas of application Political speeches Legal speeches Advertising All aspects of art Lecture 2: Oral Style and Composition --The Oral Tradition: contents, definition DEFINITION: all the contents (below) that have been orally composed and passed from generation to generation. These oral sharings also pass along important cultural info, beliefs, and values that are therefore preserved for future generations. CONTENTS OF ORAL TRADITION: Oral poetry Epics, ballads, heroic lays, love lyrics, etc. Oral stories Fairy tales, myths, legends, fables, etc. Carols, lullabies Prayers, oracles, proverbs Rituals, incantations, marriage vows Riddles, street games, word games and puzzles --Orality vs. literacy (differences) --Types of oral and literate societies Types of oral societies: Pure/primary orality: writing is totally absent, non-literate society, mainly oral communication Residual orality: oral communication present in literate society, oral, literacy and written coexist Types of literate societies: Scribal literacy: writing limited to small group of scribes (monks, clergy, etc) or the wealthy Hyperliterate society: writing is embedded in society; people constantly writing --Theoretical Approach to Orality The Oral Formulaic Theory: Formula: a group of words/phrase that are regularly used in the oral work to express a central idea Formulaic expression: a line or half-line made from the original formula Theme: recurring motifs, incidents or passages Ongs list of 9 characteristics of oral thought and expression (Orality and Literacy, 31-56): I. Expression is additive rather than subordinative II. Aggregative rather than analytic III. Redundant or copious IV. Conservative and traditionalist V. Close to the human lifeworld VI. Agonistically toned orality situates knowledge within a context of struggle VII. Empathetic and participatory rather than objectively distanced VIII. Homeostatic oral societies live very much in the present which keeps itself in equilibrium or homeostasis by sloughing off memories which no longer have present relevance. IX. Situational rather than abstract people in oral cultures tend to think more about the situation the here and now rather than the abstract hypothetical Lecture 3: Literacy and the Power of Writing --Spoken word vs. written word vs. print --Origin and evolution of writing historical survey Origin of the Alphabet First alphabet: the Egyptians in 2000 BC 1000 BC: Phoenician 800 BC: Greek 700 BC: Etruscans (Italy) 600 AD: Anglo-Saxons Writing systems --Residual orality and Classical Greece 6 BC: Polis as a system of government, Greek calendar invention, education advanced by writing (Greek alphabet) th 5 BC: unparalleled cultural center -- Three main types of oratory: judicial, deliberative, epideictic --Socratic Views vs. New Sophistic Education: methods and practice; views of persuasion Major figures of sophistic education: Gorgias Protagoras Prodicus Hippias -- Gorgias, his Innovation, and Encomium of Helen Born in 485-c.380 BC. in Leontini, a Greek colony in Sicily. He arrived in Athens in 427 (ca. 60) and remained in Athens until the end of his life He shone very quickly wit
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