KINE 1020 Study Guide - Final Guide: Hip Fracture, Cholecalciferol, Estrone

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Published on 14 Jun 2019
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osteoporosis
Ethnicities vs osteoporosis
Asians have a very low osteoporotic fracture risk because they are shorter to the ground
Blacks have the lowest rate of fracture risk and osteoporosis, more dense bones
Optimizing Bone Health
Strong bones require
1. Regular Physical activity, with a good intake of nutrients
2. Sun exposure and calcium
3. Normal hormone levels, big effects
Caffeine and bone
Caffeine inhibits your intestines ability to absorb Ca and lowers Ca net balance
But the magnitude of it is small
Alcohol and bone
Relationship between these lower chronic alcoholism leads to lower BMD and higher fracture risk
due to
1. Poor nutrition and malabsorption of calcium
2. Liver disease, abnormal vitamin D
3. Directly toxic to osteoblasts (bone forming cells)
4. Increased propensity to fall
Alcohol can be beneficial to women on HRT because it stimulates androstenedione conversion into
estrone (increases hormones)
Low and high protein diets and bone health
People on high protein diets tend to pee out more calcium but are also absorbing more so there is
no effect?? *Im confused on this*
Astronaut Osteoporosis
Space travelers lose bone mass after long periods of weightlessness
Caused by disuse of bones
It is also seen in paralysis victims and people with severe fractures
Other treatments for hip fractures
"hip pillows". It was found that people with hip protectors with had more fractures
What kind of exercise?
Exercise is good overall because it decreases fall risk
standard prescription:
2 sets, 3x/wk at 70-80% 1RM
Increase endurance, increase strength
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Evidence from vitro research
High intensity
Low reps
Fast loading(dynamic)
Suggested that 20-30 cycles/day may be sufficient
Sarcopenia- flesh deficiency
Belcastro talks bout dis**
Relationship between muscle and disability
Women that have a lot of muscle have an increased risk for disability?? Why???
Relationship between BMI and body fat changes with age
People who have been the same weight their whole lives because they lose muscle and gain
muscle %body fat will go up and muscle mass will go down= balancing their body weight
Influence of sarcopenia-obesity on drop in function in the new Mexico aging process study
No difference in mortality rate between sarcopenia healthy and obese BUT with sarcopenia-
obesity, they have both physical disability and cardiometabolic consequences of obesity
Old men and young men squat study
Old men and young men jumping with weights
No old men got hurt
FEMALE ATHLETE TRIAD
Menstrual History and BMD
Females that do not have periods, have lower BMD (premenopausal women)
Female athletes have 3 things in common, low energy, irregular periods and low BMD
Menstrual cycle
Eumenorrhea- ovulatory cycle. Normal period. 24-34 days
Oligomenorrhea- irregular menses. 35-90
Amenorrhea- no menses for at least 90 days
How do we meet the energy deficit
1. Restrictive intake
2. Increased expenditure (most likely athletes)
3. Restrictive intake and increased expenditure
Importance of estrogen
Allows benefits of physical activity on your bone
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More dangerous without because causing microfractures but since 1your lacking hormones,
osteoblasts wont work properly
Who is at risk
Sports that cut calories, cut fat, low energy and causes irregular menses
Aka
Sports that subjectively assessed
Sports that emphasize low body weight
Sports that require revealing clothing
Sports that use weight classes
Worldwide, a large killer is an acute infection that causes severe diarrhea or respiratory infection
The trends for non infectious diseases are on the rise( diabetes, heart disease etc...)
Infections diseases are on the slight decline
Why?
Low income countries are dying from infectious diseases where ass richer people are dying more from
non infectious diseases
Biggest infectious disease killers
Respiratory ( lungs )
Diarrhea
Hiv/aids
TB
Bacteria that can kill.
The most likely places to pick these up are in hospitals
All 4 are NON responsive to antibiotics
MSRA:
Staph bacteria
Gets passed through skin to skin contact
C. Difficle:
Hand to hand contact
Found in human feces
SRE
Found in bowels and feces
Enterococci
Found in the female genital tract
Health- adjusted life years by infectious disease syndrome- Ontario
Most common is pneumonia ( infectious to lungs)
Septicaemia( in blood stream)
Urinary tract infections
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