ORGS 1000 Midterm: Orgs 1000 Review

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Published on 3 Aug 2015
Course
Professor
Orgs 1000 Review
Chapter 1
Scientific management: using scientific methods to improve work efficiency
- Employees carefully selected and trained
- Wages directly linked to motivation and performance
Bureaucracy – emphasises control over members through a strict chain of command
The two primary outcomes in organizational behaviour are: job performance and organizational
commitment
Most Employee goals:
1. To perform their jobs well
2. To work for an organization with members that they respect
Most Employer goals:
1. To maximize job performance
2. To retain employees
*MAKE SURE TO MEMORIZE INTERGRATIVE MODEL OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
Resource based view – theory that rare and inimitable resources help firms maintain a
competitive advantage. Ex. Employees doing something that other employees from competing
companies don’t do
What makes a resource valuable?
1. Rare
2. Inimitable. WESTJET AIRLINE FLIGHT ATTENDANTS
- History
- Numerous small decisions
- Socially complex resources
Chapter 2
Job performance employee behaviours that either benefit or harm an organization
What does it mean to be a “Good Performer?”
Job performance has 3 dimensions:
1. Task performance
2. Citizenship behaviour
3. Counterproductive behaviour
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Task Performance
Task performanceobligations that an employee must fulfil to receive payment or continuance
employment. Ex. Teacher has to teach to students
Routine task performance – employees’ fulfilling predictable/habitual task demands. Ex. Flight
attendant robotically demonstrating instructions
Adaptive task performance – employee fulfilling unusual/unpredictable task demands. Ex. Flight
attendant demonstrating emergency procedures
Creative task performance – employee developing ideas that are useful EX. Artist
Citizenship Behaviour
Citizenship behaviour – voluntary employee behaviours that help the organization, employees
going the extra mile – doing tasks that are not in the job description. Ex. Going to optional
meeting, always willing to help
Interpersonal citizenship behaviour going beyond normal job expectations to help coworkers.
Ex. Showing courtesy (sharing important information), sportsmanship, helping
Organizational citizenship behaviour – going beyond normal job expectations to improve
organizational operations. Ex. Voice (offering suggestions to improve organizational operations)
and civic virtue (participating in voluntary meetings), and boosterism (positively representing the
company)
Counterproductive Behaviours
Counterproductive behaviour – employee behaviours that purposely hinder the organizations’
goals. Ex. Property deviance (behaviours that harm the organization’s assets) and sabotage
(purposely destroying organization’s assets)
Types of counterproductive behaviours (refer to pg. 40 for the model)
Task performance: routine, adaptive, creative
Citizenship behaviour: interpersonal (helping, courtesy, sportsmanship) and organizational
(voice, civic virtue, boosterism)
Counterproductive behaviour: property deviance – behaviour that harms an organizations
assets (sabotage, theft), production deviance – intentionally reducing an organizations efficiency
or work output (wasting resources, substance abuse), political deviance – behaviours that
intentionally disadvantage other workers (gossiping, incivility), personal aggression
(harassment, abuse)
Performance Management
Management by objective (MBO) – evaluating an employee’s performance on whether specific
goals have been met
Behaviourally anchored rating scales (BARS) – evaluating an employee’s performance by
assessing their behaviour on specific events
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360 degree feedback – evaluating an employee’s performance by asking for feedback from
supervisors, customers, coworkers, etc.
Chapter 3 – organizational commitment
Organizational commitment – an employee’s desire to remain in the organization
Withdrawal behaviour – set of actions that an employee performs to avoid work activities
3 Forms of Commitment
Affective commitment – an employee’s desire to remain in the organization due to emotional
attachment
- Managers would prefer affective commitment because high affective commitment is
associated to citizenship behaviour and higher job performance
Erosion model – a model that suggests employees with fewer connections with coworkers are
more likely to quit
Social influence model – model that suggests that employees who are directly linked to
employees that quit are more likely to quit as well
Continuance commitment – an employee’s desire to remain in the organization due to the costs
of leaving (ex. Benefits of staying and costs of leaving)
- Higher continuance commitment is associated with lower job performance
- Only staying because they have to
- Behavioural benefits (such as citizenship behaviour, higher job performance) do not
usually occur with continuance commitment
- Focuses on family and personal issues
Embeddedness – an employee’s connection or sense of fit in the organization
Normative commitment – an employee’s desire to remain in the organization because you feel
an obligation to the organization
- Feel that you are in debt to the organization
Focus of commitment – the people, places, and things that create a desire for employees to
want to remain in an organization
4 Withdrawal Behaviours
Exit – an employee avoiding negative work events by either being absent from work or leaving
the organization
Voice – an employee offering suggestions to improve a negative work event
Loyalty – an employee publicly supporting the situation but privately hoping the situation
improves
Neglect – an employee responding to a negative work event by slowly checking themselves out
(work performance and interest declines)
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