Behaviorism = view that psychology (1) should be objective science (2) studies behavior without reference to mental
Neutral Stimulus = in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
Unconditioned Response = in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring in response to an unconditioned
Unconditioned Stimulus = in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally, naturally & automatically, triggers
an unconditioned response
Conditioned Response = in classical conditioning, learned response to a previously neutral but now conditioned
Conditioned Stimulus = in classical conditioning, originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an
unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
Spontaneous Recovery = reappearance after a pause of an extinguished conditioned response
Generalization = tendency, once a response has been conditioned for stimuli similar to conditioned stimulus to elicit
Discrimination = in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli
that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
Operant Conditioning (22)
Operant Conditioning = type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if
followed by a punisher
Law of Effect = Thorndike’s principlethat behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and
that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Operant Chamber = in operant conditioning research, a chamber (Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal
can manipulate to obtaina food/water reinforcer
Reinforcement = in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Shaping = reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of the desired behavior
Positive Reinforcement = increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus
that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
Negative Reinforcement = increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any
stimulus that, when re-moved after a response, strengthens the response
Primary Reinforcer = an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
Conditioned Reinforcer = a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule = reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
Reinforcement Schedule = a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced
Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement Schedule = reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower
acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
Fixed-Ratio Schedule = in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a
specified number of responses.
Variable-Ratio Schedule = in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an un-
predictable number of responses.
Fixed-Interval schedule = in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a
specified time has elapsed.
Variable-Interval Schedule = in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at
unpredictable time intervals.
Punishment = event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows.
Biology, Cognition & Learning (23)
Cognitive Learning = the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or
Cognitive Map = mental representation of the layout of one’s environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats
act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
Latent Learning = learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
Intrinsic Motivation = desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake.
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