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Study Guide

[PSYC 1010] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (53 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis
Study Guide
Midterm

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York
PSYC 1010
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Brain States & Consciousness (8)
Consciousness = awareness of ourselves & our environment
Cognitive Neuroscience = study of the brain activity linked with cognition (perception, thinking, memory & language)
Dual Processing = information is often simultaneously processed conscious & unconscious
Blindsight = condition which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it
Parallel Processing = processing many aspects of a problem simultaneously
Selective Attention = focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
Inattentional Blindness = failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
Change Blindness = failing to notice changes in the environment
Sleep & Dreams (9)
Sleep = periodic, natural loss of consciousness
Circadian Rhythm = biological clock, regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24hr cycle
REM Sleep = rapid eye movement, sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur
Alpha Waves = relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
Hallucinations = false sensory experiences
Delta Waves = large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
Narcolepsy = sleep disorder, has uncontrollable sleep attacks
Sleep Apnea = sleep disorder, has temporary cessations of breathing during sleep & repeated momentary awakenings
Dream = sequence of images, emotions & thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind
Latent Content = underlying meaning of a dream
Drugs & Consciousness (10)
Substance Use Disorder = continued substance craving & use despite life disruption &/or physical risk
Psychoactive Drug = chemical substance altering perceptions & moods
Tolerance = diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring user to take larger doses to feel
drug’s effect
Alcohol Use Disorder = alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal & a drive to continue problematic use
Barbiturates = drugs that depress central nervous system activity, reducing anxiety but impairing memory & judgment
Opiates = morphine, heroin, etc, depress neural activity temporarily lessening pain & anxiety
Stimulants = caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, ecstasy, etc, excite neural activity & speed up body functions
Amphetamines = stimulate neural activity, causing speeded up body functions & associated energy & mood changes
Nicotine = stimulating & highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco
Methamphetamine = stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded up body functions & associated energy &
mood changes, overtime it reduces dopamine levels
Cocaine = temporarily increased alertness & euphoria
Hallucinogens = psychedelic drugs, distorts perceptions & evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
LSD = powerful hallucinogenic drug
THC = major active ingredient in marijuana
Basic Learning Concepts & Classing Conditioning (21)
Learning = process of acquiring through experience new information or behaviors
Associative Learning = learning that certain events occur together. Events maybe 2 stimuli or a response & its
consequences
Stimulus = any event/situation that evokes a response
Respondent Behavior = behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
Operant Behavior = behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
Cognitive Learning = acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, watching others or through
language
Classical Conditioning = type of learning in which one learns to link 2 or more stimuli & anticipate events
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Behaviorism = view that psychology (1) should be objective science (2) studies behavior without reference to mental
processes
Neutral Stimulus = in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
Unconditioned Response = in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring in response to an unconditioned
stimulus
Unconditioned Stimulus = in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally, naturally & automatically, triggers
an unconditioned response
Conditioned Response = in classical conditioning, learned response to a previously neutral but now conditioned
Conditioned Stimulus = in classical conditioning, originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an
unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
Spontaneous Recovery = reappearance after a pause of an extinguished conditioned response
Generalization = tendency, once a response has been conditioned for stimuli similar to conditioned stimulus to elicit
similar responses
Discrimination = in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli
that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
Operant Conditioning (22)
Operant Conditioning = type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if
followed by a punisher
Law of Effect = Thorndike’s principlethat behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and
that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Operant Chamber = in operant conditioning research, a chamber (Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal
can manipulate to obtaina food/water reinforcer
Reinforcement = in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Shaping = reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of the desired behavior
Positive Reinforcement = increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus
that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
Negative Reinforcement = increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any
stimulus that, when re-moved after a response, strengthens the response
Primary Reinforcer = an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
Conditioned Reinforcer = a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule = reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
Reinforcement Schedule = a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced
Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement Schedule = reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower
acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
Fixed-Ratio Schedule = in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a
specified number of responses.
Variable-Ratio Schedule = in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an un-
predictable number of responses.
Fixed-Interval schedule = in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a
specified time has elapsed.
Variable-Interval Schedule = in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at
unpredictable time intervals.
Punishment = event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows.
Biology, Cognition & Learning (23)
Cognitive Learning = the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or
through language.
Cognitive Map = mental representation of the layout of one’s environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats
act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
Latent Learning = learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
Intrinsic Motivation = desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake.
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