PSYC 1010 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Content Validity, Factor Analysis, Criterion Validity

80 views3 pages
user avatar
Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Page:
of 3
Intelligence Testing
Psychological Test
A standardized measure of a sample of behaviour.
Personality Tests
Try to measure different aspects of personality.
Mental abilities Tests
1. Intelligence Tests: Used to assess intellectual potential.
2. Aptitude Tests: Used to assess potential of specific types of mental abilities.
3. Achievement Tests: Tests previously learned material.
Intelligence is a construct; something intangible. Has to be measured indirectly.
Wechsler
Wechsler’s definition of intelligence is the capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal
effectively with the environment.
History of Intelligence Tests
1884 Galton: Measure sensory acuity and physical attributes.
1905 Binet: Intelligence depends on mental abilities; reasoning, remembering, imagining.
- Chronological Age: How old you are.
- Mental Age: Referred to a child’s performance on a test, expressed in years, compared to
typical performance at that age.
- Intelligence Quotient: I.Q. = MA/CA * 100
If MA = CA then intelligence is average
If MA > CA then intelligence is above average
If MA < CA then intelligence is below average
Wechsler’s Deviation I.Q. Score
You take a person’s score and compare it to the scores of other people in the same age group.
Average performance of a given age group is set at 100.
You then see how for a given person’s score deviates from the average score for that age group.
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory (1985 1991)
Cognitive Perspective
Focuses on the process of I.Q. rather than on the amount. In other words, “How do people use
their I.Q.?”
Emotional Intelligence (Goleman)
Consists of the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought,
understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion.
Test Construction
Three Criteria
1. Standardization: A uniform procedure whereby the original test questions are administered
to a large group of people in order to:
a) Produce questions that can discriminate or distinguish.
b) Provide a set of standards or norms by which to judge an individual score.
2. Reliability: Refers to where there is a consistency in test scores.
a) Test retest reliability
b) Test retest reliability with alternate forms
c) Split test reliability
3. Validity: Whether the test is really measuring what it is designed to measure.
a) Content validity
b) Criterion validity If scores on a test in questionare correlated with another
independent measure (criterion), then the test has criterion validity.
c) Construct validity Refers to the extent to which there is evidence that the test is
measuring the construct.
Culture Fair Test: Is one where people from varying cultures and economic backgrounds have an equal
chance of doing well.
Structure of Intelligence
2 major views:
1. I.Q. reflects a general capacity for reasoning and problem solving
2. I.Q. is a set of individual abilities and not a general trait
Factor Analysis: Determines whether questions on a test or across tests are related to one another. Are
there certain groups of questions that represent a particular underlying common mental ability?
Nature-Nurture Controversy
Family Studies
Asses the influence of heredity on intelligence by examining blood relatives and seeing how
similar they are on I.Q. scores.
The more closely people are related, the higher the correlation in their I.Q. scores.
Twin Studies
Identical Twins are compared to fraternal twins
Adoption Studies
Adoptive parent and child living together have higher correlation than adoptive siblings living
apart.
However, biological parent and child living together have even higher correlation between I.Qs.
Heredity sets limits on I.Q.
The environment determines where a person falls within these limits.
Reaction Range: The genetically determined limits on I.Q. (20-25 points)

Document Summary

A standardized measure of a sample of behaviour. Intelligence tests: used to assess intellectual potential: aptitude tests: used to assess potential of specific types of mental abilities, achievement tests: tests previously learned material. Wechsler"s definition of intelligence is the capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment. 1884 galton: measure sensory acuity and physical attributes. 1905 binet: intelligence depends on mental abilities; reasoning, remembering, imagining. Mental age: referred to a child"s performance on a test, expressed in years, compared to typical performance at that age. If ma = ca then intelligence is average. If ma > ca then intelligence is above average. If ma < ca then intelligence is below average. You take a person"s score and compare it to the scores of other people in the same age group. Average performance of a given age group is set at 100.