A standardized measure of a sample of behaviour.
Try to measure different aspects of personality.
Mental abilities Tests
1. Intelligence Tests: Used to assess intellectual potential.
2. Aptitude Tests: Used to assess potential of specific types of mental abilities.
3. Achievement Tests: Tests previously learned material.
Intelligence is a construct; something intangible. Has to be measured indirectly.
Wechsler’s definition of intelligence is the capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal
effectively with the environment.
History of Intelligence Tests
1884 – Galton: Measure sensory acuity and physical attributes.
1905 – Binet: Intelligence depends on mental abilities; reasoning, remembering, imagining.
- Chronological Age: How old you are.
- Mental Age: Referred to a child’s performance on a test, expressed in years, compared to
typical performance at that age.
- Intelligence Quotient: I.Q. = MA/CA * 100
If MA = CA then intelligence is average
If MA > CA then intelligence is above average
If MA < CA then intelligence is below average
Wechsler’s Deviation I.Q. Score
You take a person’s score and compare it to the scores of other people in the same age group.
Average performance of a given age group is set at 100.
You then see how for a given person’s score deviates from the average score for that age group.
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory (1985 – 1991)
Focuses on the process of I.Q. rather than on the amount. In other words, “How do people use
their I.Q.?” Emotional Intelligence (Goleman)
Consists of the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought,
understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion.
1. Standardization: A uniform procedure whereby the original test questions are administered
to a large group of people i