Motivation and Emotion This is the Lecture on Motivation and Emotion, for more information read Chapter 10 IN THE TEXTBOOK "Psychology themes and variations". This is very useful for the midterm coming.

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Lecture 10 Jan 4/ 2010
Motivation
a) Definition
Needs, wants, interests, and desires that propel people in certain direction
Involves goal-directed behaviour
b) Maslows Model (later)
Lack of food (motivation to eat) go to a restaurant (behaviour)
Isolation (Motivation for social contact) call friend
Need for success (motivation for good grades) study hard
*Behaviour is sometimes indirect* (Eg. The way females dress, not for sex can be for recognition and
attention)
1) Physiological needs (survival) 80% of world population
2) Safety and security needs (long term stability/ survival) 70%
3) Belongingness and love needs (affiliation and acceptance) 40%
4) Esteem Needs (gain recognition)
5) Cognitive needs (knowledge and understanding)
6) Aesthetic needs (order and beauty)
7) Need for self- actualization (realization of potential) 10%
If first needs are not met, other needs are not going to be met either. Insecurities will form and
motivation lowered.
Criticisms of Maslow’s model:
o Do lower needs have to be fulfilled for the higher to operate?
o Is the order universal? Or are there individual differences?
o Needs for autonomy, need to be in control?
o What about power and aggression?
o What about altruism and the need to help other people?
Social Motives
a) Need for Achievement similar to esteem needs
Want to accomplish goals; desire to excel
Wanting to succeed, trying hard
b) Need for affiliation
Want to be with others
Want to be accepted by others; winning friends
Belonging to a group, not about strong relationship built
Preserve social harmony, not the quality of relationships
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c) Need for intimacy
Wanting good (close, more connected) interpersonal relations
Wanting warm and close exchanges with significant other
Close friends, good understanding, I give more and expect less
d) Need for power
Wanting to influence or control others
Wanting to have an impact (Eg. Comedians)
e) Feeling your best
Being engaged in activities where you feel: independent and in control
Competent and worthy
Connected, eg. Close to those people you care about
Eg. Study best moment scientists tried to see what were the needs met most
remembered moment of independence, worthiness and connection
Biological Motives
a) Hunger and Eating
Controlled by hypothalamus
Influenced by blood glucose, insulin and leptin (serves as hormone that stop people from
eating) (sight of food acts as a conductor to send signal to the brain)
Pancreas secrets insulin
Stomach provides info. based on distension of stomach walls whether you need to eat more
or not and richness of nutrients in the stomach
Sexual Motivation
a) Evolution and mating priorities
Parental investment theory: gender with larger investment in offspring will be more
discriminating in selecting a partner
Males on the other hand, do not need to invest much and would rather have more partners
so their gens can be passed on to their offspring’s
Study: gender disparities in mating preferences differences in pressure among women
and men for reproductive success. Women put more inferences on financial matter then
men. While men put more inferences on physical attractiveness.
b) Sexual orientation
Figure on pg. 432, exclusively heterosexuality, exclusively homosexuality
c) Prevalence of homosexuality
Figure 10.14 8% of population is homosexual
d) Theories of homosexuality
Level of prenatal hormones are involved in determining sexual orientation and organization
of the brain
A large part of it is by maternal biological factors
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Document Summary

Needs, wants, interests, and desires that propel people in certain direction. Lack of food (motivation to eat) go to a restaurant (behaviour) Isolation (motivation for social contact) call friend. Need for success (motivation for good grades) study hard. If first needs are not met, other needs are not going to be met either. Social motives: need for achievement similar to esteem needs. Want to accomplish goals; desire to excel. Wanting to succeed, trying hard: need for affiliation. Want to be accepted by others; winning friends. Belonging to a group, not about strong relationship built. Preserve social harmony, not the quality of relationships: need for intimacy. Wanting good (close, more connected) interpersonal relations. Wanting warm and close exchanges with significant other. Close friends, good understanding, i give more and expect less: need for power. Being engaged in activities where you feel: independent and in control. Connected, eg. close to those people you care about.

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