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Cognition Quiz 3.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3260
Professor
Norman Park
Semester
Fall

Description
Short-Term Memory Slides  Primary memory- William James o A memory system that keeps a small number of items in consciousness o More closely related to working memory than STM  Memory-span procedure o Present digits one at a time and ask participants to repeat them back o Increase number of items by 1 until they begin to make mistakes o Memory span of about 7 items, plus or minus 2 o Memory span- point where participant is able to recall all items correctly 50% of the time  What affects memory span? o Auditory presentations lead to larger memory span than visual presentations o Rhythmic presentation better than non-rhythmic  In-class thought experiment o Looked at digits in pairs and asked to write down as many as they can remember o Looked at digits in bigger chunks and did the same thing o Second set of digits were easier to remember because most of the chunks of numbers were familiar (416, 400, 401)  Chunking- George Miller o Memory span is determined by the number of chunks you need to recall, not the number of items presented  Brown-Peterson paradigm o It is possible to induce very rapid forgetting if you distract a person o Study- present some items, followed by a number such as 632, instruct person to count backward by threes until asked to recall the previous items o Data shows a dramatic reduction in performance as retention interval increased  Hypotheses for paradigm o Trace decay- you hear an item, it has a vivid memory representation, but fades over time automatically  Argued that it must be trace decay o Interference- memory disrupted by other memory traces  Proactive- effects of prior items on recall of subsequent items  Retroactive- effects of subsequent items on recall of previous items  Cannot be retroactive because items are not numbers and cannot interfere with them  Keppel and Underwood said it is proactive because if in trial one, there isn’t previously studied material to interfere with the items you’re supposed to recall  Evidence: studies show that performance declines across lists when several lists of items are presented (buildup of proactive interference). If you change categories, performance increases (release from proactive interference)  Free recall task- Craik o Participant presented with a series of items to recall, and you can recall them in any order o Immediate free recall test- recall of first few items is elevated, then performance goes down, then last few items are better recalled again (recency effect) o Delayed free recall test- waited a few minutes and then had to recall previous items, recall is much lower than in immediate o Important distinction made between STM and LTM o Delayed condition has a stronger influence on recency portion because recency reflects STM performance o Argued that material goes from STM to LTM, but in this case it stays in the STM because it is not rehearsed  Neuropsychological evidence for separation of STM and LTM o Amnesics have normal digit span (STM) but are impaired in their ability to retain LTM memories o Free recall data in amnesics- in recency portion of immediate free recall, they are unaffected (STM), but they are affected in primacy portion (LTM)  Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory o STM- temporary storage system capable of holding a small amount of info, forgotten quickly unless rehearsed or transferred to LTM o LTM- permanent memory store with no capacity limits o External input sensory register  STS  LTS o Problem- assumes that STS plays a critical role in the transfer of info into LTS (incorrect)  Doesn’t account for finding that patients with STM deficits have intact LTM  Doesn’t account for finding that maintaining an item in STM doesn’t ensure its transfer into LTM  Shallice and Warrington o Some people with poor STM span have normal LTM o Proved Atkinson-Shiffrin model wrong o Single dissociation- good at STM task, impaired on LTM task o Double dissociation- one group, normal performance on one and impaired on another, other group vice versa  Baddeley’s working memory model o STS acts as a working memory o Holds and manipulates info o Dual task paradigm  Primary task- grammatical reasoning, determine whether sentences are true/false  Secondary task- memory capacity, remember number sequences ranging in length  Reasoning time increased with digit load, but performance remained high and errors low  Suggests that system responsible for holding digits doesn’t play a critical role in retrieval o Working memory consists of a central executive (controlling attentional system) and two slave systems, phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad, NO LTM o Phonological loop- codes speech-based info and maintains it for 2 seconds by subvocal rehearsal, important role in reading, comprehension of language, and acquisition of vocabulary o Visuo-spatial sketchpad- info can enter visually or through generation of image, assessing visual images, location, and spatial info, access is obligatory (automatic) o Central executive- controls attention  Dorsal PFC necessary for manipulation in addition to maintenance  Ventral PFC needed for maintenance  Central executive o Vigilance- sustained attention o Parasuraman- vigilance performance decreases if task has a STM component involving storage and manipulation of info, but if the participant has to evaluate each item on its own, then performance remains stable  Supervisory attentional system- Norman and Shallice o Action slips  Performing an unintended action  Driving home from York and forgetting to make a detour to go to the dry cleaners  Tend to occur when preoccupied with another thought  Separate system that deals with everyday activities and one that overrides it  Suggests that some actions can be accurately performed with little consciousness o Damaged frontal lobe patients- performance is impaired if it requires coordination of a complex activity, focused attention, focusing on the whole of a task, or working on new situations o There are sequences engaged when you’re doing actions that are familiar to you (contention scheduling), and others when you’re doing actions that are the exception (Supervisory Attentional System) o Perception inputs modulated by contention scheduling, and a more flexible system called SAS o Routine actions- perceptual info comes into system, makes contact with stored info, triggers responses, result in actions produced by effector system o Our behaviour is controlled by schemata that control lower-level programs o Schemata are inhibitory, activation of one will inhibit another o Contention scheduling- routine selection between alternative actions o SAS- has access to the environment and to the organism’s intentions, inhibits or activates particular schema, initiates willed actions  Baddeley’s NEW model th o Proposed a 4 component- episodic buffer o Has limited capacity o Stores info in a multimodal code
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