Study Guides (248,358)
Canada (121,503)
York University (10,191)
Psychology (1,203)
PSYC 3260 (21)

Cognition Quiz 3.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 3260
Norman Park

Short-Term Memory Slides  Primary memory- William James o A memory system that keeps a small number of items in consciousness o More closely related to working memory than STM  Memory-span procedure o Present digits one at a time and ask participants to repeat them back o Increase number of items by 1 until they begin to make mistakes o Memory span of about 7 items, plus or minus 2 o Memory span- point where participant is able to recall all items correctly 50% of the time  What affects memory span? o Auditory presentations lead to larger memory span than visual presentations o Rhythmic presentation better than non-rhythmic  In-class thought experiment o Looked at digits in pairs and asked to write down as many as they can remember o Looked at digits in bigger chunks and did the same thing o Second set of digits were easier to remember because most of the chunks of numbers were familiar (416, 400, 401)  Chunking- George Miller o Memory span is determined by the number of chunks you need to recall, not the number of items presented  Brown-Peterson paradigm o It is possible to induce very rapid forgetting if you distract a person o Study- present some items, followed by a number such as 632, instruct person to count backward by threes until asked to recall the previous items o Data shows a dramatic reduction in performance as retention interval increased  Hypotheses for paradigm o Trace decay- you hear an item, it has a vivid memory representation, but fades over time automatically  Argued that it must be trace decay o Interference- memory disrupted by other memory traces  Proactive- effects of prior items on recall of subsequent items  Retroactive- effects of subsequent items on recall of previous items  Cannot be retroactive because items are not numbers and cannot interfere with them  Keppel and Underwood said it is proactive because if in trial one, there isn’t previously studied material to interfere with the items you’re supposed to recall  Evidence: studies show that performance declines across lists when several lists of items are presented (buildup of proactive interference). If you change categories, performance increases (release from proactive interference)  Free recall task- Craik o Participant presented with a series of items to recall, and you can recall them in any order o Immediate free recall test- recall of first few items is elevated, then performance goes down, then last few items are better recalled again (recency effect) o Delayed free recall test- waited a few minutes and then had to recall previous items, recall is much lower than in immediate o Important distinction made between STM and LTM o Delayed condition has a stronger influence on recency portion because recency reflects STM performance o Argued that material goes from STM to LTM, but in this case it stays in the STM because it is not rehearsed  Neuropsychological evidence for separation of STM and LTM o Amnesics have normal digit span (STM) but are impaired in their ability to retain LTM memories o Free recall data in amnesics- in recency portion of immediate free recall, they are unaffected (STM), but they are affected in primacy portion (LTM)  Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory o STM- temporary storage system capable of holding a small amount of info, forgotten quickly unless rehearsed or transferred to LTM o LTM- permanent memory store with no capacity limits o External input sensory register  STS  LTS o Problem- assumes that STS plays a critical role in the transfer of info into LTS (incorrect)  Doesn’t account for finding that patients with STM deficits have intact LTM  Doesn’t account for finding that maintaining an item in STM doesn’t ensure its transfer into LTM  Shallice and Warrington o Some people with poor STM span have normal LTM o Proved Atkinson-Shiffrin model wrong o Single dissociation- good at STM task, impaired on LTM task o Double dissociation- one group, normal performance on one and impaired on another, other group vice versa  Baddeley’s working memory model o STS acts as a working memory o Holds and manipulates info o Dual task paradigm  Primary task- grammatical reasoning, determine whether sentences are true/false  Secondary task- memory capacity, remember number sequences ranging in length  Reasoning time increased with digit load, but performance remained high and errors low  Suggests that system responsible for holding digits doesn’t play a critical role in retrieval o Working memory consists of a central executive (controlling attentional system) and two slave systems, phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad, NO LTM o Phonological loop- codes speech-based info and maintains it for 2 seconds by subvocal rehearsal, important role in reading, comprehension of language, and acquisition of vocabulary o Visuo-spatial sketchpad- info can enter visually or through generation of image, assessing visual images, location, and spatial info, access is obligatory (automatic) o Central executive- controls attention  Dorsal PFC necessary for manipulation in addition to maintenance  Ventral PFC needed for maintenance  Central executive o Vigilance- sustained attention o Parasuraman- vigilance performance decreases if task has a STM component involving storage and manipulation of info, but if the participant has to evaluate each item on its own, then performance remains stable  Supervisory attentional system- Norman and Shallice o Action slips  Performing an unintended action  Driving home from York and forgetting to make a detour to go to the dry cleaners  Tend to occur when preoccupied with another thought  Separate system that deals with everyday activities and one that overrides it  Suggests that some actions can be accurately performed with little consciousness o Damaged frontal lobe patients- performance is impaired if it requires coordination of a complex activity, focused attention, focusing on the whole of a task, or working on new situations o There are sequences engaged when you’re doing actions that are familiar to you (contention scheduling), and others when you’re doing actions that are the exception (Supervisory Attentional System) o Perception inputs modulated by contention scheduling, and a more flexible system called SAS o Routine actions- perceptual info comes into system, makes contact with stored info, triggers responses, result in actions produced by effector system o Our behaviour is controlled by schemata that control lower-level programs o Schemata are inhibitory, activation of one will inhibit another o Contention scheduling- routine selection between alternative actions o SAS- has access to the environment and to the organism’s intentions, inhibits or activates particular schema, initiates willed actions  Baddeley’s NEW model th o Proposed a 4 component- episodic buffer o Has limited capacity o Stores info in a multimodal code
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3260

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.