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PSYC 3260 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Binding Problem, Basal Ganglia, Lateral Sulcus

Course Code
PSYC 3260
Norman Park
Study Guide

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Short-Term Memory Slides
Primary memory- William James
o A memory system that keeps a small number of items in consciousness
o More closely related to working memory than STM
Memory-span procedure
o Present digits one at a time and ask participants to repeat them back
o Increase number of items by 1 until they begin to make mistakes
o Memory span of about 7 items, plus or minus 2
o Memory span- point where participant is able to recall all items correctly
50% of the time
What affects memory span?
o Auditory presentations lead to larger memory span than visual
o Rhythmic presentation better than non-rhythmic
In-class thought experiment
o Looked at digits in pairs and asked to write down as many as they can
o Looked at digits in bigger chunks and did the same thing
o Second set of digits were easier to remember because most of the chunks
of numbers were familiar (416, 400, 401)
Chunking- George Miller
o Memory span is determined by the number of chunks you need to recall,
not the number of items presented
Brown-Peterson paradigm
o It is possible to induce very rapid forgetting if you distract a person
o Study- present some items, followed by a number such as 632, instruct
person to count backward by threes until asked to recall the previous
o Data shows a dramatic reduction in performance as retention interval
Hypotheses for paradigm
o Trace decay- you hear an item, it has a vivid memory representation, but
fades over time automatically
Argued that it must be trace decay
o Interference- memory disrupted by other memory traces
Proactive- effects of prior items on recall of subsequent items
Retroactive- effects of subsequent items on recall of previous items
Cannot be retroactive because items are not numbers and cannot
interfere with them
Keppel and Underwood said it is proactive because if in trial one,
there isn’t previously studied material to interfere with the items
you’re supposed to recall
Evidence: studies show that performance declines across lists
when several lists of items are presented (buildup of proactive
interference). If you change categories, performance increases
(release from proactive interference)

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Free recall task- Craik
o Participant presented with a series of items to recall, and you can recall
them in any order
o Immediate free recall test- recall of first few items is elevated, then
performance goes down, then last few items are better recalled again
(recency effect)
o Delayed free recall test- waited a few minutes and then had to recall
previous items, recall is much lower than in immediate
o Important distinction made between STM and LTM
o Delayed condition has a stronger influence on recency portion because
recency reflects STM performance
o Argued that material goes from STM to LTM, but in this case it stays in the
STM because it is not rehearsed
Neuropsychological evidence for separation of STM and LTM
o Amnesics have normal digit span (STM) but are impaired in their ability to
retain LTM memories
o Free recall data in amnesics- in recency portion of immediate free recall,
they are unaffected (STM), but they are affected in primacy portion (LTM)
Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory
o STM- temporary storage system capable of holding a small amount of
info, forgotten quickly unless rehearsed or transferred to LTM
o LTM- permanent memory store with no capacity limits
o External input sensory register STS LTS
o Problem- assumes that STS plays a critical role in the transfer of info into
LTS (incorrect)
Doesn’t account for finding that patients with STM deficits have
intact LTM
Doesn’t account for finding that maintaining an item in STM doesn’t
ensure its transfer into LTM
Shallice and Warrington
o Some people with poor STM span have normal LTM
o Proved Atkinson-Shiffrin model wrong
o Single dissociation- good at STM task, impaired on LTM task
o Double dissociation- one group, normal performance on one and impaired
on another, other group vice versa
Baddeley’s working memory model
o STS acts as a working memory
o Holds and manipulates info
o Dual task paradigm
Primary task- grammatical reasoning, determine whether sentences
are true/false
Secondary task- memory capacity, remember number sequences
ranging in length
Reasoning time increased with digit load, but performance
remained high and errors low
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