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Final Exam Notes Detailed

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Boston College
COMM 1010

CICERO: • Very much influenced by Aristotle and Aristotle’s Rhetoric • Supports everything Aristotle said and often builds on it • Was a famous speaker himself- most famous of Roman era • Famous politician in Roman senate • Did not have a school-wrote from the perspective of a practitioner of rhetoric o Wrote pages and books about rhetoric but nobody could get a hold of them • Ad Herenium- “cliffnotes” of Cicero- he wrote 1000’s of pages so someone condensed them into his major points • Most famous work= “The Oratory” • Was also influenced by Isocrates’ “citizen orator”- believes he himself is a citizen orator o Importance of natural ability and daily study o Learning major subjects o Practice in writing and speaking • Believed there are 3 types of people: o People who are great speakers but don’t write o People who write well but don’t speak o People who can speak and write well (himself)- best combo Cicero’s Canons Invention • Logos: o Stasis: basis/status of argument you are putting together o Conjecture: piece of info that is verifiably right or wrong, not general statement o Definition: basis of argument is definition, often occurs in conflict with people ex: pro life vs. pro choice: when does life begin? o Quality: something is morally right or wrong, arguing for one or the other o Procedure: discussion over how something is done  Comparing one or the other  Suggesting one should be substituted  Eliminate or create procedure • Ethos: o Speech based phenomenon o Aristotle’s idea of good sense/judgment, good character, good will o Cicero said to take their whole life into account  Ex Rudy Guiliani construction speech- ppl knew his background • Pathos: o Doesn’t add much but writes a lot on it o Says pathos is critical o Looks at nonverbal o One of the first people to talk about humor  Even if speech is intended to be serious, people appreciate humor if you establish it well  Audience is more disposed to listen to serious side if you establish humor well  Use it to support broader point- ex Rudy Guiliani  Sometimes we use humor as a frame itself  Points made by humor that are part of the whole story- SNL 2000 presidential election debate Bush/Gore Organization • Same as Aristotle with intro/conclusion • Cicero adds refutation stage to body- defeat arguments of other side o Use refutation because if you understand their point of view, pulls audience ot you  Only use refutation if you have two opposing positions • Stages: exordium (intro), narration, proof, refutation, peroration (epilogue) Style • Adds levels of style: plain, middle, grand o Levels of formality o Plain and middle are most used today • Plain- informal setting, with friends, used often to prove things • Middle- used to please audiences • Grand- mostly used to persuade Delivery • Doesn’t add anything to Aristotle but wrote extensively on its importance/power • Powerful delivery is as important as anything else • Even more focus than Aristotle Memory • Memory as a canon discussed by Cicero is NOT memorizing speeches • Mix of style and delivery • Vivid image that speaker has in his mind o If you establish this image you can more clearly descrie • Ex: Rudy Giuliani’s vivid story of construction worker • The more vivid the memory, the clearer it is to the audience Cicero’s Interpersonal Communication Guidelines 1. Put forth your ideas in an easy manner 2. Use humor 3. Don’t monopolize the conversation 4. Let your language correspond to the subject 5. Topics that are good to discuss: family affair, politics, learning, culture 6. Study people’s tastes because taste differs between people 7. Don’t show anger 8. Only reproof/correct someone if absolutely necessary 9. Maintain your composure 10. Don’t boast QUINTILLIAN • Last major rhetorical theorist of the Roman empire • 350 years after Cicero but was majorly influenced by Cicero o Also influenced by Isocrates because he talks about the citizen orator st • Had school similar to Isocrates where he taught major subjects 1 then prepared young men to be citizen orators • “Good man” theory- good man speaking well • Goal of citizen orator is for them to be well trained and educated • Situational ethics- vary according to the situation o Think about decisions base don what exactly the situation is o Ex: Barbara Walters taping over Betty Ford’s drunk slurring during White House tour • Expands on ethos with his definition/criteria for the citizen orator o Free from vice/sin (hardest to apply in contemporary) o Sincere believer in the cause they advocate o Lover of wisdom, always seeking information o Servant of the state- doesn’t mean politics o Seeks knowledge on the subject • Believed audiences can sense good/bad and when people lie o Good man speaking well, ex Mr. Rogers • Example of Quintillian’s citizen orator- MLK Jr. “I Have a Dream: 2 SOPHISTIC PERIOD • Period after the fall of the Roman empire • Periods of turmoil- speech is controlled by the government, less is developed • Government changed to dictatorship- only kind of public rhetoric allowed is panegyric rhetoric- an artificial form of epideictic where the only canon left was delivery o Government chose topics, structures, writes speech, and chose person who will speak o Illegal to talk about issues or problems o Little creativity SAINT AUGUSTINE • Importance of his timing * • Influential in the Catholic Church before the fall of the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages • Converts to Catholicism in his 30’s • Before, he was studying Cicero • Moves into church with training of rhetoric • Church doesn’t believe in the importance of rhetoric- says divine inspiration will give church leaders enough skill to speak • Augustine shows the church you need a combination of divine inspiration and knowledge of rhetoric o Training in rhetoric makes us more eloquent o Training in rhetoric cannot teach wisdom o Training in rhetoric can help you teach divine word • Conversion has nothing to do with rhetoric, only after you have been converted training in rhetoric helps you understand church and keeps you in it THE MIDDLE AGES • Era of great pandemics/plague • 500-1200= seat of learning has moved into the catholic church o During Roman collapse, Augustine was important in bringing Roman rhetoric teaching into the church o Ad Herenium (Cicero) stayed influential • Major form of public discourse/communication= letter writing by clergy in Catholic church o Ability to get info from person to person is hard • *1095- Crusades begin, crucial to the spread of learning in all areas o Time before was filled with plague and war so people started traveling again, encountered new cultures and persuaded other cultures • 1200-1300= emergence of Cathedral schools for wealthy children around Paris THE RENAISSANCE • Invention of printing press in 1450 made books must more accessible to many people • Protestant Reformation in 1511- persuasion to split from church • Renaissance begins in Italy- beginning of learning/excitement in study for every field- ‘enlightened’ • Two competing areas of thought: Italian Humanist (Vico) vs. Rational Perspective (Ramus) Humanist Perspective • Giambatista Vico- Italian humanist • Liked by people • Says people are completely creative and unique, clever and different • Kairos is important in rhetoric (fitness for occasion) • Vico supports importance of kairos and rhetoric in creative forms- strong invention, style, delivery, and structure • Vico studied Aristotle and Cicero • Believed in individual differences- ingenium*= “light”, creative spark and unpredictability that all people have o Cannot predict where its going to go until moment when people are together o Because of this and its power, we have to be extremely observant and creative in this persuasion Rational Perspective • Peter Ramus- French university professor o Follower of Descartes o Followed rational scientific belief that fundamental scientific principles could be found- if you study enough you can predict human behavior o Hated individualistic perspective of Aristotle and Cicero and their focus on emotion • Stressed importance of logic, do away with emotions • Broke canons of rhetoric apart o Turns invention and organization into “logic” o Left style and delivery to rhetoric- keeps stilted form of them, not really interested in performance o Did much to destroy the study of rhetoric THE BRITISH ENLIGHTENMENT • Era of Dickens • 1700’s- historical time where “sun never sets on the British empire”- had colonies all over globe, powerful period, also time of British arrogance Hugh Blair • Specializes in style • Believed strongly in the study of Cicero • Had popular lecture series called “The Belle Lettres”- Bellatristic movement • Believes style has two major concepts: taste and the sublime o Believes you can educate people to have better taste o The more artistically pleasing the better o If you didn’t have good taste you had to be educated to • The sublime- something aesthetically beautiful, 4 characteristics o Innate beauty o Simplicity o Conciseness o Verbal strength • If audience is noticing bad aesthetics they have no chance of seeing the good o Ex Jimmy Carter video • Blair thinks all the canons are important but emphasizes style o If aesthetics are bad you are too distracted to receive the message • Considered rhetoric to also be a part of written discourse Campbell & Whately • Mainly associated with argument • Invention- argument/logos based • Both were ministers • Both strong followers of Aristotle & Cicero Campbell- “faculties of the mind” • Faculty psychology- how you think o Looks at Aristotle and Cicero and combined concepts from faculty psychology • 5 faculties of the mind: o Faculty of understanding- basic explanation o Faculty of memory- vivid imagery, helps explanation o Faculty of passion- pathos/emotion o Faculty of imagination- metaphor/parable to understand o Faculty of will- strong conviction/beliefs Whately • Anglican minister o Looks at Aristotle and Cicero and combines with forensic rhetoric • Interested in arrangement/invention of argument • A priori argument- argument from cause and effect- only efficient if audiences sees the connection • Sign- matters of fact (verifiable) and matters of opinion (quotes, testimonials) • Presumption- in court when defendant is presumed innocent • Burden of proof- depends the prosecution to prove • Proof of innocence- prosecution has to prove you did it, you don’t defend your case first ELOCUTIONISTS • Influential in 1800’s- even moved to Philadelphia/Boston • Focus on formation of sounds • Focus only on delivery • Taught a superficial system of performance which resulted in negative consequences for the field of rhetoric for years • Different dialects marked you as low class- elocutionists claimed they will fix this and get rid of differences/social barriers- transcend levels of society o Done by middle class to get to higher class o People put their daughters in so they can marry someone of higher status • Had recitals where students would read manuscript o Manuscript would be markd so you know what to do with rate, volume, pauses, etc • People eventually began to think classes were stupid o To get rid of a dialect is possible but it takes a lot of work so classes weren’t always effective • Negative consequence of elocutionist movement- later when communication departments were formed, people looked down on it because they only thought of elocutionists Thomas Sheridan • Most famous teacher of elocution, most respected school • Scientific approach, believed speech sounds could be perfected and taught to individuals Gilbert Austin • Specialized in gesture and body position • Created a mindless system to be used for performance • Looks witless and silly CONTEMPORARY PERIOD The Rhetorical Situation-Lloyd Bitzer • Article published in 1969 • Rhetorical situation is context focused • Not all dangerous situations are rhetorical situations • Must be able to be altered by discourse • Discourse can come in many forms • Bitzer suggests we have to look at messages and discourse from a different perspective: orator/speaker looking at audience • Rhetorical situation: when issue or problem occurs, audience recognizes it, and starts demanding that someone speak about it • 3 elements in rhetorical situation o Exigency: issue or problem that calls for need for discourse o Audience: those who notice the problem, people demanding discourse, also audience that judges discourse when it happens  Audience influences speaker and speech, idea for message originates in audience who identifies problem and need for address o Constraints: constraints are not on the audience, they are on the person who addresses exigency/provides discourse- what/how they can say things  Constraints can be internal or external  External constraints: outside factors that limit how/what a person says, ex: time, $  Internal constraints: personal, on person who has to supply message, has to do with personality/what they are comfortable with. Ex: Bush 9/11 address • Complicating factors in rhetorical situations: o Multiple audiences o Multiple exigencies o Things/events that change exigency o If multiple people need to respond o Need a do-over- when audiences judge initial attempt and deem in inadequate o Some rhetorical situations go unanswered o Some rhetorical situations mature and die • What people think of you can affect ways you can respond • Sometimes there is nobody to respond to exigencies o Lack of response may lead to social movements APOLOGIA • Any rhetorical situation that calls into question the reputation, moral qualities, behaviors, motives, or character of an individual or an organization requires an act of self defense o Apologia: term that describes rhetorical acts performed in response to situations in which the rhetor felt directly or indirectly damaged by charges of inappropriate behavior or poor judgment • Exigency is big, embarrassing, public situation • Tend to come from public figures because audience expects public response/apology from person • The audience demanding the response will be the ones to judge Ware & Linkugel’s 4 Possible Strategies 1. Denial: “I’m Innocent” • Dangerous because you could be lying and public could later find out • Must have positive evidence that you are innocent • Public judges you more harshly if you lie 2. Bolstering: accent already accepted public values • Reminding public of what they liked about you in the past, show that you have core values • Past positive ethos factors • Ex: Checker’s speech 3. Differentiation- redefine reality • Explaining why your situation is different than other people charged with the same thing • Ex: Checker’s speech, wife not on payroll 4. Transendence- look at larger context, different perspective • Look at larger context, different perspective • Say there are more important things to worry about or broaden the issue • Ex: Checker’s speech, communism is bigger • Bolstering and transcendence are the most common Speakers Seeks 4 Possible Outcomes • Absolution- proven innocent • Vindication- I am not only innocent, I am more worthy than my accuser • Explanation- I had a good or just reason • Justification- I did it, but I am justified RICHARD WEAVER • Tremendously influenced by Plato • 2 characteristics of humans o Humans separate from other life forms because they have the ability of choice o Humans have the ability to look at things symbolically • 2 limitations of dialectic (influenced by Plato)- dialectic’s problems with large audiences o Fails to move people o Dialectic is more like an academic exercise, it doesn’t deal with real world situations • 2 thing rhetoricians should have in mind o Idealistic: the first thing to do when creating a message is how to approach it ideally and ethically o Take a look at special circumstances of the audience • Language is sermonic o When you choose words/images to put in messages you are revealing your values to the audience o Rhetoric is value laden, reveals your point of view o Audience analyzes speaker not speaker analyzing audience • Hierarchy of beliefs o Ideas- the thing, whatever it is o Beliefs- your personal attitude towards it o Metaphysical dream- cultural level, cultural attitude and entire society’s thoughts • Synonyms: uncontested term, charismatic terms, ultimate terms, tyrannizing image o Power comes because they are unquestioned o At the cultural level/metaphysical dream there are some things we don’t question at all, we’ve already been rhetorically persuaded in one way • Historical
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