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COMPLETE Democracy, Rights & Empire I Notes: Part 1 - got 90% in the course!

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History
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HIST 1019
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All

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Democracy Rights & Empire Final Exam Study Guide I. The Rise of England as a Global Power -Key events/factors that led to England’s dominance: A. 1678- England defeat Dutch in last Anglo-Dutch War…TURNING POINT SIGNALING CHANGE i. Switch from regional trade to control of the global market place/trade markets in Europe (push Dutch to the margin) th  Late 16 century transition from exporting raw wool to be manufactured into cloth by other countries (sign of England’s underdevelopment) TO export of their own manufactured wool cloth  Increased production by 170% from 1550-1600  This manufacturing production industrialized England  (Italian cloth industry collapsed as result of war & plague)  Control of this market=part of Anglo-Dutch war fight o After defeat, Dutch slow to industrialize o Dutch imported wool from Spain, English wool = raw material o English advantages:  Easier access to raw material  Quicker capability of manufacturing  Larger population, more workers  SO English take the lead  Underdeveloped economy TO a dominant power ii. Allows England to move west, establish colonies, so regional tradetransatlantic trade B. Bristol i. Atlantic port city, faced west  Example of English economic development ii. mid 15 century Bristol decline in woolwine trade w/ Gascony & Bordeaux iii. Bristol merchants look to trade w/ Portuguese b/c of their sugar, spices, salt …but insecure trade relationship b/c Portuguese debt iv. SO, Bristol merchants hire explorer John Cabbot  Couldn’t find northwest passage BUT discovered fish/cod reservoir near New Finland in Atlantic o Extraordinarily profitable find o Gave Bristol stable stance in European market o Allowed Bristol merchants to turn their attention west 1 v. Crucial piece to colonizationdeparture point for establishing the colonies  (Bristol merchants were primarily carriers of black slaves, sale of these slaves=profit from which they invested in sugar in west indies or tobacco in colonies) vi. Example of how England’s trade network was primarily based in Europe but was begging to go westward  Glimpse of how it was English who were able to pull of the transatlantic trade network: when they defeated the Dutch they had in place prosperous trade network that allowed them to make the jump from focus on Europe to a focus on America and an empire vii. Flexibility + Liquidity = key to Bristol’s success/England’s creation of a global market plce  Flexibility o Could’ve stayed in Bristolwent to Portuguese, could’ve stayed therehired Cabbot to exploreenter into slave trade after seeing the demand for labor  Liquidity o Necessary in order to create dynamic economy, can’t have wealth tied up on land or one thing (fish) –have to be ready to seize an opportunity C. Fisheries (Cod), beaver trade, eventually tobacco & sugar from colonies D. Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations (1776) i. His ideas had one of greatest impacts on the transformation  Argued against English policy of mercantilism and for rationalized capitalism o Mercantilism maintained by the crown to make state powerful + wealthy, by establishing monopolies/privileges to particular groups of merchants o Condemns Charles I’s attempt to create tobacco monopoly:  Navigation Act 1651  Began getting timber from colonies  Nav. Act reinforced by Charles II in 1660 o different b/c now Parliament consisted of different economic interest groups, said: “would be folly to ignore interest of the merchants & traders when articulating econ. Policy”  “interest” NEW MEANING (before meant a share in anything), now: private property, influence over others  sign of distance from crown’s authority 2  Argument on moral understanding man motivated by self-interest that would produce a wealth of all people (*notion made capitalism possible/desirable) o Competition regulates self-interest/holds community together o Poor included, can’t have wealthy & happy nation at the expense of the poor ii. Law on Accumulations  About PROFIT, workers cutting into manufacturers’ profit  You have to progress and experience economic growth, the economy isn’t stagnant as it becomes profitable and the capital is progressive iii. Remarkable argument:  Made sense of chaos, conflict, self-interest, *w/out intervention, w/out central control or planning, but by allowing men to play out their natural inclinations iv. Interested in his ideas in relation to American Revolution  Not a direct link but his attacks on mercantilism are echoed by colonists’ attacks on mercantilism  Shows how these ideas are on both sides of the Atlantic* II. English Civil War and Glorious Revolution -What they were: A. English Civil War=Parliament defying traditional “divine right” of the King, establishment of “commonwealth” + established Puritan ideals into society ENGLISH CIVIL WAR: -Causes: A. Puritans & Calvinists = the engine that fired the war B. + a rising middle-class  newly wealthy, but not yet empowered  sought to take power from aristocratic class  middle-class & Puritans had more wealth, but aristocrats had more power C. Puritanism vs. Anglicanism  Puritanism (from Calvin) about indiv. Salvation, also sought reform societypure it from its sinful temptations, build more Godly society o Didn’t coincide w/ goals of Anglican society  Anglicanism: established by Henry 8 , national (not international), hierarchical, governed by the King (church+state=1)  Puritans convinced they were right, Anglicans were wrong  1559 Act of Settlement by Elizabeth I o temporary peace between the two 3 D. Charles’ appointing of Laud & Wentworthcauses Scotts & Irish rebelParliament doesn’t support King’s request to create an armyCharles fled to London to create his ownthis is the civil war  **see notes in next section** -Key people & events: A. 1603 James I came to the throne  His response to Puritan ideals: “No Bishops, No Kings” o If challenge church’s hierarchy, same logic will be applied to the state (attack on King)…the church supports the state o Unwilling to abolish the hierarchy  1603-1625 on throne, an “embarrassment” B. 1625 Charles I takes the throne i. went to Spain to look for bride (BAD b/c Spain=Cath.)didn’t find one, angered ii. demanded Parliament declare war against Spain o Parliament increasingly dominated by middle-class, less aristocrats…so said we have the right to approve/ consent to whatever was needed to go to war o VS. Charles: believed had divine right to rule…went to war on own w/out Parliament  Didn’t have wherewithal to turn his wealth (land) into cash (land as his capital, didn’t have any fallback) iii. 1626 when demanded Parliament provide him w/ $, Parliament said was its RIGHT not to respond to demands (rights became a political reality during civil war*) iv. Charles demands forced loan from Parliament v. Knight said NO, forced loan=a tax, and taxing=Parliament’s right vi. Charles had knights imprisoned w/out trial, Knights demanded jailers say why men are imprisoned, demand was denied o King had placed himself against the rule of law (glue holding together English society) vii. 1627 Parliament enacts Petition of Rights: any Englishman who favored taxing… 1) w/out consent of Parliament was enemy of the commonwealth (**moving away from the monarch) 2) anyone who pays such an illegal tax = enemy of our country (aimed at supporters of the crown) 3) anyone who trusts the crown is a traitor of the nation o Parliament as “representative” legal body…claim to speak for all people…away from monarchy C. Charles appoints Laud (religious dissent) and Wentworth (political dissent) to crush people into line 4 i. Result: 1640 Scottish rebel, 1641 Irish rebel ii. King goes to Parliament to raise army against Scotts & Irish iii. Parliament didn’t comply, King fled to London to create his own army  …THIS IS THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR D. 1644 “The New Model Army” Parliament creates to fight King’s army i. followed creation of army along a self-defying ordinance o can’t claim officership b/c of who you are, now a career only open to talent o (Oliver Cromwell—one man who stepped into position) E. Oliver Cromwell i. Puritanled army into battles singing Calvinist hymns  Showed had religious belief for what they were fighting for F. New Army Model vs. King’s Army i. New Army Model powerful b/c manifested the people  Support from East + South of England (commercialized/urbanized areas) ii. King’s support from North + West (older, land-driven economies) iii. fight now about aristocracy vs. the ruling middle-class G. Presbyterians vs. Puritans i. 1647: Presbyterian members of Parliament move to abolish N. M. Army  SO N. M. Army drives Presbyterians from office & calls for new elections ii. (in the mean time) N. M. Army at PUTNEY  debates what future will be, where power will be w/ victory at hand  army not homogametic so DEBATE: iii. Presbyterians argue: still necessary for hierarchal political order but w/different players than the King iv. Puritans argue: COMMONWEALTH where power comes from/originates in the people o Create stability by crushing sinful behavior o Create public good so possible to obtain indiv. Salvation v. King flees in mist of debates o Captured & trialed, found guilty of tyranny o Executed on January 30, 1649 -Consequences: A. Civil war = transformation in English civil state B. Parliament  For the people  Only body that had power: not aristocracy or the King C. RIGHTS changed meaning o Before civil war: were a grant from the King o After civil war: a birth right THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION: 5 Background: A. English Civil War…30 years apart but closely related B. Stuart Restoration i. 1660 Charles II took throne in reaction against Puritanism Key people/events: A. 1685 James II takes throne (Charles’ brother) i. asserts divine right of Kings ii. plans to restore Catholicism as state religion iii. December 1688 flees to France B. William III & Mary crowned April 1689 i. Invited to take throne by conspiracy of English noblemen ii. Mary = James’ sister …significance? iii. Protestant Causes:  English Civil War established Puritanism  Charles II took throne AGAINST Puritanism 1660  James II tries implement Catholicism 1685  English noblemen conspiracy (against Catholicism?) to appoint William III who is PROTESTANT in 1688 Consequences: A. Political i. Declaration of Rights ii. Parliament asserts authority over King B. Religious i. Act of Toleration guarantees freedom of worship C. Foreign Policy i. England joins grand alliance against France (Louie XIV) D. Economic Policy i. Reorientation towards manufacturing and trade III. The English Colonial System -Colonial relationships between England, American colonies, Native Americans: A. Fur Trade: i. Mutual dependency between traders/merchants/state + Natives b/c traders couldn’t do it without Natives, Natives knew that, so were tough negotiators  Ex: Harvard Yard Dig ii. Becomes huge market w/ increasing profit  greater demand  Had effect of WAR among tribes to be the one who provided the beavers  Same fighting dynamic between the European states (French & Dutch involved in fur trade, as well)  When beaver supply declined, pushed into other’s territoryalso resulted in WAR iii. When the beaver was gone, the natives’ destruction took place -Socio-economic, political, and cultural structure of the colonies: 6 A. MA/VA settled as result of English Civil War & Glorious Revolution o Values brought shaped by those of the war  Religious salvation  Social reform  Value of representative government  Economic autonomy B. VA vs. MA VIRGINIA iv. 1620 settled by English aristocrats to establish a utopia v. 1625 becomes a Royal Colony b/c utopian dream shattered by uprising between settler’s & Natives…can’t live happily together vi. TOBACCO = consumer good to make VA a profitable market vii. House of Burgesses established in 1619 (gov. representative body)  Defied crown’s command to produce corn, just wanted produce tobacco to make themselves a profit  Pushed Royal Governor aside so they could make the law viii. TURNING POINT: indentured servants to colonies as demands grew  1675 Nathaniel Bacon arrived in VA: Bacon’s Rebellion of finished indentured servants who didn’t get land against Natives’ land protected by English authority/gov. o bloodshed war…1676 Bacon has some success o England sends royal troops to crush rebellion, Bacon killed  Planters still need labor, TURN TO BLACK SLAVES b/c Bacon’s Rebellion=proof indentured servants are too dangerous since they have rights  SO VA transformed: on path to economic autonomy…have labor force needed for white men to fight for freedom MASSACHUSSETTS i. 1630 settled by Puritans to establish a “godly commonwealth”  establish homogeneous communityeveryone who comes into the towns signs covenant/contract that binds them to set of values  covenant says, “You must commit yourself to walking in peace and love, and to the mediation of all disputes” …utopian ideals ii. Church establishment committed to possibility of salvation  Church demanded each person prove had been selected for salvation iii. As pop. in MA grew, pressure on the state for increased land  This alienated Natives, …led to: iv. King Phillip’s War o King Phillip turned back by wealthy Bostonians, result: that wealthy group that defeated the Natives became wealthiest group in the colony -Role and nature of slavery: 7 C. Sugar i. English 3 entrance into sugar production after Portuguese & Dutch ii. English aware of profit from use of investment capital (sugar & tobacco) to begin new industries  (Aka…sugar + tobacco production enabled the Industrious Revolution) iii. sugar + tobacco production = complex process 1)Purchase land o took lot of capital to start the business o purchase land in Caribbean to get into the business o land was cheap but mortgage high  English banks loaned capital needed to buy the land  development of Mortgage Business 2) Purchas slaves o slave trade was profitbale  ex. 1650 buy in Africa for 3 pounds sterling, sold in Caribbean for 15 (this profit made up for amount of deaths in the middle passage) o production couldn’t be done w/out slaves  ex. 200 acre plantation average 350 slaves, at harvest each worked 24/7 iv. Slave Trade essentially murderous BUT profitable  (ex. 1660-1713 130,000 brought to Barbados, by 1713 only 40,000 of those survived)  growth: 1640-12,000 whites, 5,000 blacks 1700-7,000 whites, 85,000 blacks v. Demand increased w/ production demand, price of slaves rose, but so too did price of sugar  Ex: rates of per capita consumption of sugar in England: 1700: 4 lbs. …1750: 20 lbs. …1825: 90 lbs.  SO extraordinary profit, no incentive to consider inhumane treatment of slaves  Several slave revolts by 1713 vi. Rationalized mistreatment of slave: o English clergymen of colony preached slaves were brutes so was OK to work them to death o Barbados Governor said sugar + slave production = pillar holding up economy of England  ECONOMY had much to do with it:  Cheaper to buy black slaves than to employ indentured servants  Market there made step needed to take for Industrial Revolution shorter  State made 6 million pounds per year from it  SUGAR in CARIBBEAN  TOBACCO in VA 8 D. Tobacco i. Tobacco not as profitable as sugar but created consumer demand ii. Also created new tax so James I allowed it iii. Bacon’s Rebellion made switch to slaves (indentured servants too likely to revolt) iv. Much more seasonal production, so slaves did reproduce  So VA imported fewer slaves, but # increased dramatically v. Care for VA slaves a little better, tobacco planters “fathers” of their plantation who “took care of their children” vi. Tobacco planters sought to be autonomous so taught slaves how to be craftsmen (so to not hire outside labor)  Made slaves better fit to runaway  William Byrd II: used brutality & random violence to psychologically scare slaves from running away (drinking pee) IV. The American Revolution -Ideological foundations: Smith, Locke- A. Adam Smith i. See pages 1-2 B. John Locke i. Second Treatise of Government published 1690, at end of Glorious Revolution ii. Rationalized transformation of power:  Put new men who promoted own economic development into Parliament  The government exists to protect property -Causes of Revolution A. Tension between colonists & Homeland b/c: i. Mercantilism implemented (through 1776) by crown’s desire to shape common good, crown’s concern for everyone extended from homeland to colonies, ii. simultaneous argument colonies subordinate to homeland B. (recall:) Navigation Act 1651only timber shipments in English ships after 1770timber supply from colonies i. Tobacco could only be sold in England  Advantage=guaranteed market, Disadvantage=didn’t play into a market demand  Planters could profit from selling tobacco across Europe o Instead were indebt by increased price of slaves  …doesn’t seem like common good C. Parliament dominated by economic groups disinterested in common good…passed laws to benefit themselves: i. Molasses Act (1764): says OK import molasses from Caribbean to mainland colonies but pay costly duty 9  Merchants saw this would run them our of business, but needed the trade to survive  Found tons ways to avoid paying tax  Parliament’s response: reduce tax in half, but sent ships to colonies to see to it o Common good or self-interest? o New England economy in particular dependent on molasses trade…when tax enforced sends New England economy in downward spiral ii. 1770 colonies population doubling every 25 years  greater demand for manufactured goods  timber + molasses trade not enough to sustain this  SO, 4 lbs. per capita debt in colonies  Debt signaled dependency o WHY is this happening? Parliament dominated by men’s self-interest at expense of the colonies iii. 1770 misdistribution of wealth in Boston (but not only urban issue:) D. by 1763 land interest=another manifestation of English self-interest that hurt colonies i. 1730 father gave son less land than he had inherited, SO New England sons not enough land to sustain a family (result=delayed marriages) ii. 1763 English gov. said no one can settle west of Appalachian lineless land for colonists E. 1754-1763 Americans (begin using that name) join Britain war v. France i. “Seven Years War” or “French & Indian War” ii. Americans happy to participate b/c feared French Catholicism & their Native allies iii. Parliament recruits army in colonies b/c cheaper  Problem: Americans didn’t want to fight under English officers  Americans didn’t want fight in Navy iv. 1758: 2 English soldiers surround NYC, took prisoner ¼ pop. as soldiers  angered them, alienated them  showed them they didn’t have the rights of Englishmen F. Colonists’ association w/ the Real Whigs party i. (1) Real Whigs said gov. = corrupt, not adhering to English Constitution b/c gov. run by small group of men making decisions ii. (2) Argued for separation of church + state (existed in colonies but not in England) iii. (3) argued education is key to a republic of liberty iv. ex: The Sugar Act  calling it a “duty” to pay rather than a “tax” + sent officials to enforce it o saw as act of tyranny by British gov. 10 v. bottom line: Real Whigs said this needs to be stopped NOW or else lose freedom  choice: freedom or slavery  response: resist now  result: the American Revolution -Course of Revolution (key events)- A. Declaration of Independence i. October 1774—First Continental Congress adjourned ii. British gov. didn’t address grievances colonists made clear iii. MA delegation (Samuel Adams & John Hancock) went to NYC to join up w/ John Adams & Thomas Cushing iv. Then to Philadelphia: delegates debated if and when should separated from Britain …**independence by no means a given**  Second Continental Congress opposed to revolution (along w/ sizable number of colonists)  Some still believed George III committed to common good  Hesitancy & reluctance to embrace call to revolution v. John Adams one of most eager push for revolution vi. Benedict Arnold & Ethan Allan led force to seize British Fort Ticonderoga key to movement of troops from Canada to colonies  MA called 14,000 troops to reinforce holding action  Congress “nationalized” the troops by appointing General George Washington to command them B. Battle of Bunker Hill—June 6, 1775 i. Before Washington arrives to take command of national army ii. Americans pushed off hill at extraordinary costs – British lost 42% of army iii. MA asked Congress for advice: what should we do about gov.??  No longer under crown’s control/part of royal gov.  Tactic brainstorm by John Adams – push Congress towards independence iv. Congress respond saying need to call a FULL and FAIR representation of the people to decide form of government C. Delegates propose a compromise: i. Colonies full control of their domestic affairs, Crown control of their trade/foreign affairs ii. George III refused read petition  August 1775 condemned Americans & asked Parliament to follow-up  Parliament’s response: the Prohibitory Act (Dec. 1775) o put Americans outside of King’s protection – branded lawless o prohibited American trade o ordered Royal Navy bl
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