BIL 226 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Phytochrome, Auxin, PulvinusExam
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BIL 226, General Botany – Krempels Study Guide for Exam III
Know the five main types of plant hormones (auxin, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic
acid), and the functions of each.
Know the more recently discovered plant compounds (e.g., brassinosteroids, jasmonate,
salicylates, polyamines, systemin, nitric oxide) with hormone-like activity, and their probable
Know what is meant by a plants "sensitivity" to a given hormone.
Know the general pathway by which a hormone sets up a signal transduction pathway and hence,
affects gene expression.
Understand the early experiments by Darwin & Darwin, Went, and Boysen-Jensen that
elucidated the function of auxin.
Know the names and the functions of synthetic auxins (and their dangers).
Know the meaning/significance of: parthenocarpy, stenospermocarpy, climateric vs. non-
Plant Responses to the Environment
Know the definition/significance of: tropism, Circadian Rhythm, stimulus, receptor, secondary
messenger (a.k.a. "relay molecules"), transcription factor
Know the characteristics and significance of etiolation, as well as the general hormonal pathway
leading to it, and its reversal.
Know the general structure of the two isomers of phytochrome, as well as their physical
characteristics. Are they receptors? Stimuli? Hormones? Just what are they, and what do they
do? What plant physiological responses do they govern? Which is the biologically active form?
Know the meaning/significance of: phytochrome Pr and Pfr, kinase, chromophore, pigment,
photoreceptor, photoperiodism, short-day, long-day and day neutral plants, florigen,
Know the general, reversible reaction of the two Phytochrome isomers, and which light
wavelength triggers which reaction.
Know the three types of blue-light receptors, and what each mediates.
Know the meaning of the various tropisms (recognize what the stimulus is from the name). Pay
particular attention to the mechanisms of gravitotropism and the models proposed to explain it.
Know the meaning/significance of: thigmomorphogenesis, thigmotropism, turgor (thigmonastic)
movements, pulvinus, biological clock (is it governed primarily by the environment, or by
Know the various ways that plants respond in the short term (i.e., not evolutionarily) to:
drought, flooding, extreme heat, extreme cold, salt.
Know the mechanisms by which plants protect themselves from herbivores (e.g., what's
canavanine, and how does it work?), pathogens (know the meaning/significance of the Gene-for-
gene response, R and Avr genes, Hypersensitive Response, and Systemic Acquired Resistance),
and competition with neighboring plants for light.
What are phytoalexins?
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