Topics to Know for Midterm 1
PSC 140: Winter 2013
Covers: Chapters 1-6 of the textbook (either 6 or 7 edition), plus related lectures, and in-class films.
ALL MULTIPLE CHOICE (68 questions).
This guide should help you focus your studying, but it is not exhaustive. There will be some questions on the
exam that are covered in your textbook, but that we did not have time to address in lectures (these will be
substantive topics covered for 3 or more paragraphs in both versions of the textbook). Although the majority of
the test will overlap between the lectures and the textbook, reading and studying the textbook is very helpful.
What I may have covered in one or two bullet points in lecture will be described more fully in paragraph
Tips for using this guide:
(1) Use it as a guide for starting your studying (after, of course, you have read all the chapters and
articles in the reader)—you can go back to the book/reader and take notes on these topics.
(2) Use it to test yourself once you feel you know all the information—Ask yourself these questions and
see how quickly you can recall the answers. Check yourself. Go back to your notes/book and see
how much you accurately remember.
DO NOT EXPECT YOUR TA OR DR. LAGATTUTA TO GIVE YOU THE ANSWERS FOR THESE
QUESTIONS—PART OF YOUR EFFORT IN STUDYING IS TO TRY TO LOCATE THEM. IF YOU
STILL HAVE QUESTIONS OR ARE CONFUSED, PLEASE ASK AND WE WIL BE HAPPY TO HELP
PLAN AHEAD: Try to send questions at least 24 hours in advance of the exam. If you wait until the
night before the exam (especially if after 9pm) you may or may not get a response on time.
Please send questions to the TA (Jessica) by email. If you don’t hear back from her in 24 hours, it is fine
to e-mail Dr. Lagattuta. Your TA will also forward any questions to Dr. Lagattuta that she is unable to
answer or that need further clarification.
Another suggestion that may be helpful for studying is to go to the website for the textbook (see syllabus for
web address). There are practice quizzes, chapter outlines, and flashcards (for studying vocabulary words from
the chapters) for each chapter. If you bought the textbook new with the “tool kit” there are also some flashcards
and quizzes included as well.
Good luck! Lecture 1: Introduction to Developmental Psychology
1. Be familiar with historical views of children and sociological and technological issues that “delayed”
scientific inquiry into child development
2. Know the general philosophical perspective of John Locke vs. Jean-Jacque Rousseau
3. Who was the “Wild Boy of Averyron” and why was Itard interested in studying him?
4. What were some of the historical changes that influenced interest in child welfare and development?
Lecture 2: Introduction to Issues, Theories, & Research Methods
1. Be able to name and describe 4 major issues in developmental psychology (continuity, sources of
development, plasticity, and individual differences)
2. According to research by Tomasello, what are key differences between humans and primates?
3. Be able to identify and/or define qualitative vs. quantitative development and give an example of each.
4. What is a sensitive period? What is a critical period?
5. Be able to name and describe major theoretical frameworks in developmental psychology: environmental-
learning, biological-maturation, psychodynamic, constructivist, cultural-context, evolutionary theories,
ecological theories, and information-processing theories. Also be sure you are able to compare/contrast them
on issues relating to relating to continuity, sources of development, and individual differences
6. What is imprinting? Is it an example of a critical period? Why?
7. Be familiar with Brofenbrenner’s ecological approach—be sure you are familiar with each of the “systems”
and can identify and/or give an example of each.
8. Be able define and identify the 4 criteria of scientific description: reliability, validity, replicability, and
9. Be prepared to describe pros and cons of experimental vs. non-experimental methods.
10. What is a positive correlation? What is a negative correlation? What values do correlations range between?
Why does correlation NOT EQUAL causality? What are the 3 possible relationships between 2 variables when
a positive correlation is found?
11. Know the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable
12. Be able to list and/or identify pros and cons of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. How does a “cohort
sequential design” help remedy some of the problems?
Lecture 3: Genes and the environment:
1. What is a zygote? How many chromosomes does it contain? How many pairs of chromosomes?
2. Be able to compare the process of cell production for mitosis vs. meiosis. How many chromosomes does an
egg and sperm cell contain? 3. Know the causes and definition of MZ vs. DZ twins
4. Genotype vs. phenotype
5. Be familiar with the laws of genetic inheritance—especially the principle of dominance, incomplete
dominance, and codominance.
6. What is a reaction range? What is canalization?
7. Be familiar with the basic methods used in kinship studies to study the effects of genes vs. the environment
on development (e.g., twin studies, adoption studies, etc.) What are some of the problems with kinship studies?
In what cases might they overexaggerate the role of biology? The role of the environment?
8. What happens to most zygotes with genetic or chromosomal abnormalities?
9. Some genetic diseases to be familiar with: Sickle cell anemia, PKU, Huntington’s Disease.
10. What is the cause of Down’s Syndrome? What are some characteristics of children/adults with Down’s
Syndrome? Does the risk for Down’s Syndrome increase with maternal age?
11. Be familiar with Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, and Fragile X syndrome
12. Are males or females more susceptible to sex-linked genetic effects? Why?
13. Be able to compare Chorionic Villi Sampling to Amniocentisis in relation to the week of pregnancy it can
be conducted and the relative risk of miscarriage
14. What is primary vs. secondary infertility? About what percentage of U.S. couples are infertile? What are
some causes of infertility? How does infertility relate to maternal age?
Lecture 4: Prenatal Development
1. What are the 3 periods of prenatal development? When does each one start? When does each one end?
What are the major milestones/achievements of each period?
2. Be able to identify the parts of the embryonic disk (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm) and what they
eventually develop into
3. What is the difference between totipotent and pluripotent cells?
4. What are the main functions of the placenta? Of the umbilical cord?
5. Be able to describe and give an example of the principles of CEPHALOCAUDAL and PROXIMODISTAL
6. How many weeks does a normal human pregnancy last? At what age (in wks) is the fetus considered
“viable?” What does “viable” mean?
7. What are the effects of undernourishment on the developing embryo vs. fetus?
8. What are teratogens? Be familiar with the 5 principles of teratogenic effects. 9. What is the period of highest risk for most teratogens (germinal, embryonic, or fetal)? Why?
10. How do Rubella, Diabetes, and AIDS affect prenatal development?
11. How do alcohol and tobacco affect prenatal development? What was the