Personality Chapter 10.odt

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29 Mar 2012
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Psych 2600 – Personality
Chapter 10 – Psychoanalytic Approaches: Contemporary Issues
The Neo- Analytic Movement
Westen 1998 Defines contemporary psychoanalysis as being
based on the following five postulates
1. The unconscious still plays a large role in life although it may not be
the ubiquitous influence that Freud held it was.
2. Behaviour often reflects compromises in conflicts between mental
processes such as emotions, motivations and thoughts
3. Childhood plays an important part in personality development
particularly in terms of shaping adult relationship styles
4. Mental representations of the self and relationships guide our
interactions with others
5. Personality development involves not just regulating sexual and
aggressive feelings but also moving from an immature socially
dependant way of relating to others to a mature independent
relationship style
Imagination Inflation Effect; a memory is elaborated upon through
imagination leading the person to confuse the imagined event with
events that actually happened. Ex; having a person imagine something
as unusual as shaking hands with mickey mouse can lead them to have
false confidence that it actually has happened
A Closer Look
Spreading activation; model of memory that holds that mental
elements are stored in memory along with associations to other
elements in memory.
Constructive memory; memory contributes to or influences in various
ways (adds tom subtracts from and so on) what is recalled.
Confirmatory Bias; tendency to look only for evidence that confirms
their previous hunch and to not look for evidence that might disconfirm
their belief.
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Cognitive unconscious view and motivated unconscious view;
acknowledges that information can get into our memories without our
ever being aware of the information. Ex; the phenomenon of subliminal
perception some information such as the phrase “buy a coke” is
flashed on a screen so quickly that you don’t recognize the actual words.
Subliminal information prime associated material in memory . Priming
makes that associated material more accessible to conscious awareness
than is material that is not primed.
Ego Psychology
We might characterize Freudian psychoanalysis as id psychology
Erikson noted that ego was involved in mastering the environment
achieving ones goals and hence establishing ones identity. It is no
wonder then that the approach to psychoanalysis started by Erikson is
called ego psychology; establishing a secure us seen as the primary
function of the ego
Identity crisis; refers to desperation and confusion a person fells when
he or she has not developed a strong sense of identity
Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development
He argued the persons with whom we have our first social relationship
our parents. Thus there could be crisis of learning to trust our parents,
learning to be autonomous from them, learning from them how to act as
an adult. He called these psychosocial conflicts rather than the
psychosexual conflicts that formed Freud’s developmental stages.
Stage model of development ; people go through the stages in a
certain order and that there is a specific issue that characterizes each
stage
each stage represents a conflict; a developmental crisis that needed
to be resolved
fixation; meaning that if the crisis was not successfully and adaptively
resolved then personality development could become arrested and the
person would continue to be preoccupied by that crisis in development
8 Stages
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