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PHYL 1010X (23)
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Block A - Introduction to Physiology.docx

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Department
Physiology
Course
PHYL 1010X
Professor
n/a
Semester
Summer

Description
Module II Energy & Enzymes INTRODUCTION: Energy is necessary for cells to carry out their normal activities. After a brief look at the work energy  can perform, we move on to chemical reactions ­ an important way to transfer energy. Here, you will learn about  one of the major functions of proteins ­ to function as enzymes. Enzymes are protein catalysts ­ they "speed up"  chemical reactions. Without the necessary enzymes, most chemical reactions would either not occur or happen  too slowly to maintain the life of the cell. Energy: In cells, energy is the ability to perform chemical, mechanical and transport work. Energy may be used  (kinetic) or stored (potential) in the form of chemical bonds and concentration gradients. Chemical reactions  allow energy to be released or transferred. • The capacity to do work o 3 types of work (chemical, transport & mechanical) • 2 types of E (kinetic & potential) o Kinetic E is the E of motion o Potential E is stored E • 2 ways E can be stored in biological systems o Concentration gradients & chemical bonds Type of Work Purpose Example Chemical Enables cells & organisms to grow, reproduce &  Forming the chemical bonds of a protein carry out normal activities Transport Enables cells to move molecule to create  Import of Ca  from/to the cytosol in the  concentration gradients ER Mechanical Used for movement  Muscle contraction or cilia/flagella  (cellular & muscle­related) beating Chemical Reactions: • When a substance becomes a different substance, usually by the breaking/making of covalent bonds • Begins with reactants & ends with products • Net free E change determines reversibility o Reversible reactions can proceed in both directions o Irreversible reactions can only proceed in one direction Endergonic Reaction Exergonic Reaction Releases E Traps E Energy­producing Energy­utilizing E given off used for work by other molecules or givenSynthesis reactions in which compl
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