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Chapter 8

CHEM 110 Chapter 8 Smart Notes.pdf

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McGill University
CHEM 110
Bryan Sanctuary

Smart Notes: Chapter 8 CHEM 110 09/10/2011 09/30/2011 CHEM 110 Chapter 8 Smart Notes 8-1: Electromagnetic Radiation o Electromagnetic Radiation Definition Electromagnetic Radiation is a form of energy transmission in which electric and magnetic fields are propagated as waves through empty space (a vacuum) or through a medium, such as glass. Electromagnetic Waves are transverse waves the electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to the perceived direction of motion. Speed of Electromagnetic Radiation The speed of electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum equals the speed of light. o Formula for EMR Smart Notes: Chapter 8 CHEM 110 09/10/2011 09/30/2011 Frequency of Electromagnetic Radiation o Wave Definition A wave is a disturbance that transmits energy through space or a material medium. Note: Water waves, sound waves, and seismic waves (which produce earthquakes) are unlike electromagnetic radiation. They require a material medium for their transmission. Crests are the high points Troughs are the low points Amplitude The maximum height of the wave above the center line or the maximum depth is called the amplitude Wavelength Smart Notes: Chapter 8 CHEM 110 09/10/2011 09/30/2011 The distance between the tops of two successive crests (or the bottoms of two troughs) is called the wavelength (lambda) o SI Unit The SI unit for wavelength is meter (m) o Frequency is the number of crests or troughs that pass through a given point per unit of time (nu) SI Unit o The SI Unit for frequency, , is the hertz (Hz) Properties of Waves Constructive Interference Destructive Interference Diffraction Definition o The dispersion of different wavelength components of a light beam through the interference produced by reflection from a grooved surface is called diffraction Smart Notes: Chapter 8 CHEM 110 09/10/2011 09/30/2011 Example An everyday illustration of interference involving electromagnetic waves is seen on the surface of a compact disc. White light contains all colors of the rainbow. The colors differ in wavelength and frequency, and then these different wavelength components are reflected off the tightly spaced grooves of the CD, they travel slightly different distances. This creates phase differences that depend on the angle at which we hold the CD to the light source. The light waves in the beam interfere with each other, and, for a given angle between the incoming and reflected light, all colors cancel except one. Thus, as we change the angle of the CD to the light source, we see different colors. Refraction
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