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CHEM 222 (20)
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CHEM 222
Karine Auclair

1 Creation of the Universe, Solar System, Planets, and Satellites Creation Mythologies 1.1.1 Pre-Civilization, Primitive Peoples - Cultural and religious traditions - Ancient mythical explanations of the origins of humanity, nature and the cosmos. 1.1.2 Civilized Man - Religions and Cultural Mythologies • Epic of Gilgamesh – Sumerian mythology (oldest known recorded story of man) describes the story of king of uruk who was responsible for book keeping. book keeping told us about weather change and also the sumerian tradition of irrigation.  Written on 12 clay tablets • Ancient Greece – spontaneous creation from Chaos, gods also created from this chaos • Judaism, Christianity, Islam – model of creation based on a God who decides to create something • The Haida peoples – creation by the Raven trickster • Mayan people: 4 gods: yellow, red black and without color • hindus realized that the universe was incredibly old 8.4 x 10^9 years ago • genesis 1:1 in jewish tradition "rosh hashana" to celebrate creation which was 5773 years ago • archbishob usher acoording to bible creation was 4004 BCE - Philosophical Mythologies • Neocreationism – Intelligent Design Hypothesis  The universe is so tuned for existence that the conscious designer must have had some purpose - Scientific Mythologies scientific models describe the universe and doesn't explain why it's there • why the universe exists? Quantum fluctuation of the nothing – a spontaneous creation is possible • Big Bang (georges lamietre)– The universe explodes out of nothing • Inflationary Big Bang (alan guth)- it would take less than 12 kg to make the universe • de sitter tried to explain universe from mathematical calculation • Concordance model – the world is being pushed forward by Dark Energy. possibility of earlier, subsequent and other multiverses A Scientific Narrative Early Attempts at Quantifying the Moment of Creation - Kant – How long has the Sun been burning (chemistry) - Hutton – geology, why did the hadrian wall not show more erosion - Von Helmholtz – The gravitational energy of the Sun could account for 20 million years (physics) - Kelvin – less than 100 million years (measured how quickly the earth was cooling) - john Joly – 90-100 million years - Walcott – at least 1.6 billion years (fossils and geological clock) - John william strutt used radium content of uranium rock to predict 1.65 billion years - bertreum B boltwook used uranium lead system to predict 2.2 billion years -in 1950 oldest rock dated using uranium lead to 4.567 billion years (the age of earth) Time periods: hadean: oldest rock period cenozoin: when animals dominated the world creteaceous part of mesozoic: dinosaur era at the end of this dinosaurs died out Modern Physics – The Radioactive Clock - Becquerel discovered radioactivity – provided the “clock” with which to measure the “age” of rocks - Modern phys
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