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MGCR 222 Chapter Notes -Social Cognitive Theory, Conscientiousness, Reinforcement


Department
Management Core
Course Code
MGCR 222
Professor
Yongheng Yao

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2/27/2013 1:44:00 PM
Person-Situation Debate
Dispositional approach
People have different genes
They are pre-disposed to react in a certain way (they are born this way)
Personality predicts behavior
Situational approach
Your environment influences the way you behave
Interactionist approach
Both environment and disposition determines the way you behave, B = f (P,
E)
Strong and weak situation
Strong situation: roles/rules are clearly defined (army). Personality has less
influence
Weak situation: roles/rules are not clearly defined. Situation will be defined
by personality.
Personality is a stable set of characteristics that influences the way
individuals interact to the environment.
Personality will have the most impact in which situation?
Weak situations with loosely defined roles and rules.
Personality Theories:
Locus of control
The “Big Five” personality dimensions
Locus of control
A set of beliefs about whether one’s behavior is controlled mainly by internal
or external factors.
Internals: behavior determined by internal: you believe that you have
control over behavior (because of self-initiative, personal actions, free will)
Externals: you don’t have control over behavior (because of fate, luck or
powerful people)
The impact of Locus of control

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Prediction is that internals are most likely satisfied, such as with job and
pay.
5-Factor Model of Personality
Openness to Experience
Conscientiousness
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism (Emotional Stability)
“The Big 5” and Work Outcomes
- Performance
- Career Success
- Stress
- Strength can turn into weakness
- Counterproductive behaviors
The HR manager was heard to have said, “When in doubt hire ->
conscientious <- people.”
Learning is… A relatively permanent change in behavior
Learning:
Two ways to learn:
Operant Learning
Social Cognitive Theory (Modeling, Self-Efficacy, Self-regulation)
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Behavior (Learning) Consequence
Increasing the Probability of Behavior
Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcer
Formal: concrete award or informal (mood satisfaction, happy)
Negative reinforcer
Contingencies
The stimulus is not by itself negative or positive.
Reinforcement Strategies
Timing
Operant
Learning
Increase
Behaviour
Decrease
Behaviour
Extinction
Punishment
Positive
Reinforcement
Negative
Reinforcement
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