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POLI 211 Comp Poli Textbook - China Summary Notes

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Political Science
POLI 211
Fillippo Sabetti

Introductionalthough unique in many aspects its political development is comparable to those of many other nationslate developers tend to put more emphasis on states role in development therefore it is logical that China would greater emphasis the state in comparison to the Western liberal model Kuomingtang KMT opted for German model nationalist and authoritarianismwhile Chinese Communist Party CCP chose Soviet model communism and totalitarianism international challenges resulted in these two different development models global challenges foreign examples and in the case of Taiwan reliance on outside sponsors shaped the political institutions of ChinaHistorical Background dynastic cycle strong leaders in the beginning mediocre rulers in the middle period and finally weak rules near the end of a dynasty overthrown by strong leaders of a new dynastyfirst arrival of Westerners occurred in the middle of Qing also known as Manchu dynasty China not governed by strong rulers but they were not weak enough to be overthrown by new group of strong leaders This facilitated Western encroachment of Chinese economic social and political life Manchu dynasty overthrown by Sun Yatsen in 1912 founding Republic of Chinawished to transform China into modern democratic and affluent countryinspired by Western model hoping China could evolve into a liberal democracy no single politicalmilitary force prevailed in postimperial erabecame various warring territories controlled by warlordsSun establishes KMT in 1919 relying on support of urban intellectuals while seeking Soviet advice establishing military academy to train Three Principles of the People nationalism democracy and peoples livelihood a form of democratic socialism with distinct Chinese characteristicsChiang Kaishek in charge of academy tasked with producing indoctrinated revolutionary army for KMTalthough Sun still wished for liberal democracy he opted for a strong state or a nonliberal strategy to accomplish this Both German model and communist model were competing tendencies within the KMT at this timerevolutionary army created but with heavy infiltration by Communists on Moscows orders when Sun died both factions began to war with the Chiangled KMT subjugating Communist faction Long March 1934 Communist main base attacked and were chased south and southwest over 7 000 miles of 100 000 that started 8 000 survived
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