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POLI 222 (24)

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Political Science
POLI 222
Christa Scholtz

Gad Horowitz Conservatism, Liberalism, and Socialism in Canada: An Interpretation The Hartzian approach To study the new societies founded by Europe (like the USA and Canada) as fragments thrown off from Europe Socialism combines the corporate-organic-collectivist idea of toryism with the rationalist- egalitarian ideas of liberalism The absence of socialism in North America comes from the absence of toryism to European countries To be American is to be a bourgeois liberal English Canada is more willing to be socialist because we are more open to toryism than the USA George Grant Lament for a Nation Discussion about conservatism versus liberalism, English Canada versus French Canada Canada can't survive as a sovereign nation Talks about Canada blending in the USA, when it used to be so different from it John A. MacDonald and George-Étienne Cartier The Confederations Debates in the Province of Canada Legislative union didn't work, so creation of a federal government Unlike in the USA, the representative of the Sovereign cannot take decisions on his own Alexander Galt Letter from Fathers to British Colonial Secretary How the government should be constituted: Governor-General Senate House of Assembly The constitution is managed by the government, which makes it easier to change if needed Supreme Court of Canada (1998) Quebec Secession Reference Question about if Quebec has the right to unilateral secession Jean Chrétien (1969) The White Paper States that the status given to Indian is different and prevents them from being true Canadians "Canadians, Indian and non-Indians alike, stand at the crossroads" Indians show determination that present conditions shouldn't persist Indians are entitled to equality The New Policy Legislative and constitutional bases of discrimination have to be removed Positive recognition of unique contribution of Indian culture to Canada Same agencies for all Canadians Furthest behind be helped most Lawful obligations be recognized Control of Indian lands be given to Indian people Step to create framework Indian Act be repealed Provinces care for Indians as much as any other Canadian Funds available for Indian development Responsibilities be given to appropriate institutions Harold Cardinal (1969) The Unjust Society White paper = extermination by assimilation Indians don't believe the Canadian government anymore Treaties have a historical value The land of Canada belonged to Indians "We cannot give up our rights without destroying ourselves as people" Ladner Up the Creek: Fishing for a New Constitutional Order Canadian politics: always defined by debates over federalism. Who has the responsibilities of doing what Debate with the Mi'kmaq about who has jurisdiction over Atlantic salmon fisheries Is it a federal, provincial, or Mi'kmaq responsibility? Who has the authority to regulate it In their view, the Mi’kmaq have never fished illegally in Canada; it is the Canadians who have infringed on Mi’kmaq rights. The forty-seventh provision of the Magna Carta established a common fishery and a public right to fishing that could not be displaced by the Crown without the consent of Parliament. The common right, which one individual of the whole community is entitled to enjoy as much as another, cannot be made by law the exclusive privilege of the people of a certain class or section upon terms and conditions that do not apply to the whole people alike. The provinces argued that while the federal government had legislative rights over the fishery, provincial governments have jurisdiction over the product of the fishery under section 92 Several provinces have argued that while the federal government has jurisdiction over the regulation and management of the fishery ~and thus the act of fishing!, the provinces could claim owner- ship of the caught fish. Caught fish, they argued, were no longer held in common ~public property! but had become the private property of the fisher. As private property, caught fish were now the subject of provincial jurisdiction ~property and civil rights! Mik'maq argue whether Canadians have a right to fisheries No doubt about their rights The Magna Carta of 1215 ~1994: 337!. In Wright’s view, the forty-seventh provision of the Magna Carta expressly prohibits the establishment of any new exclusive fisheries in public waters The Mi’kmaq never relinquished their territory nor their rights and responsibilities as a nation; they merely agreed to establish relationships of peace and friendship, and to pursue military, political and economic alliances with the British On the one hand, the Crown has established the salmon fishery as a public fishery which, though the subject of jurisdictional debate, is governed by both the provincial and federal governments. The Mi’kmaq understand these rights and responsibilities to have been recognized and affirmed by treaties in Canadian constitutional law. Kenneth Carty, William Cross, Lisa Young (2002) A New Canadian Party System Background The constellation of parties present in the system *see notes lecture 10* The new system is characterized by new diversity in the societal basis, ideology, and internal organizations of the parties that constitute it Now Alberta, BC, and Qc, support regionally based parties to create oppositions in their favour Voting for the less-bad option Regional claims are being made within the party system, with regionally based parties increasingly acting as rep. of regional interests in the national political arena Democratization in parties is enhanced Greater diversity among parties Division between regional-based decentralist views with old central Canada Rejection of basic characteristics of pan-Canadianism (bilingualism, multiculturalism, and the politics of accommodation) Different conceptions of rep. Donald Savoie (1999) The Rise of Court Government in Canada Effective power rests with the PM in concert with his carefully selected courtiers Power no longer flows from ministers, but from the PM Court government is probably better to manage the political agenda than is cabinet government Janine Brodie and Jane Jenson The Party System Modernized political systems predict that the cleavage created by religion and linguistics will be replaced by one of social class Thus, Canada's is not modernized Why no social vote C
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