Textbook Notes (369,072)
Canada (162,367)
POLI 243 (70)
Chapter 15

Poli 243- Chapter 15 Notes.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLI 243
Professor
Mark Brawley

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Poli 243 Chapter 15 Notes The Reciprocity Election in Canada, 1911 System Level Factors: The Opportunity to Liberalize Trade - Three factors are prominent o Trends in tariffs were mixed o Canada’s neighbor to the south, and major market, the U.S. seemed ready to negotiate liberalized trades o Canada was redefining its links to Britain, just as Britain was questioning its own commitment to free trade - Reciprocity was a tool to help countries ensure that they could negotiate lower tariffs, Thus while high tariffs were remaining on books, successful negotiations between some trade partners were reversing some of these trends - If Chamberlain’s Tariff reforms held sway in Britain, Canada’s raw materials and agricultural goods would be offered preferential access to Britain’s markets o The defeat of tariff reform, made this preferential treatment less likely, Britain’s continuation of very liberal trade policies, pushed Laurier to consider close ties with the U.S., but nonetheless, the first theme Laurier’s opponents seized on was that the deal would inevitably bring Canada under the sway of the U.S., breaking Historic ties to Britain - Relations with the U.S. improved in the early 1900s as the two countries successfully negotiated issues concerning the border and fishing grounds o When the U.S. proposed trade negotiations early in 1910, Laurier was interested in maintaining positive relations and agreed to hold talks  The U.S. was willing to liberalize more than had been expected and the treaty negotiated by the beginning of 1911 was surprisingly broad, and one that could be considered a coup by those desiring freer trade  The successful negotiations were announced on January 26 th 1911, to a parliament that listened intently as the details of the deal were described by William S. Fielding o Thus the systematic environment created not only an opportunity for trade liberalization, but the U.S. moves had handed Laurier a gift o System level factors were permissive at least in that sense, and it seemed as if Canada would be liberalizing its trade and finally moving away from the National Policy o But then the Tories responded, making trade policy the chief election issue, Despite the system-level factors, the decision to liberalize trade still rested with the Canadian public Domestic Level arguments: Shifting support for protection - Both parties understood the important advantages or disadvantages of undoing the National Policy and the merits of the deal. - Trade interests naturally defined the possibilities for coalitions in this election - The liberals’ campaign slogan was “Laurier and larger markets” - Following the Stolpher- Samuelson theorem, Canada’s endowments of land, labor, and capital made agricultural interests the natural base for trade liberalization o Agricultural discontent hit new heights in 1910-1911 because several factors had hurt crop yields in 1910 o The probability of a coming election, plus the hint of reciprocity negotiations in the air, combined to enthuse farmers, they had already formed organizations within several provinces to voice their complaints under the Old National Policy
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