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Chapter 3

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Political Science
POLI 244
Fernando Nunez- Mietz

UGCC Chapter 3 condensed notes 3 From Westphalia to World War I -The Mitigation Of Anarchy The Conditions And Cooperation In World Politics MANAGING GREAT POWER CONFLICT: BALANCE AND CONCERT Balances as Distributions of Power Balance of Power as Policy Balance of Power as Multipolar Systems Alliances The Structure and Process of the Nineteenth-Century System Chronologies: Europe THE ORIGINS OF WORLD WAR I Three Levels of Analysis Was War Inevitable? What Kind of War? The Funnel of Choices Lessons of History Again Chronology: The Road To World War 1 Power conversion is the capacity to convert potential power, as measured by resources, to realized power, as measured by the changed behavior of others. Some say precipitating events are like buses - they come along every ten minutes. Chamberlain's sins were not his intentions, but rather his ignorance and arrogance in failing to appraise the situation properly. And in that failure he was not alone. CHAPTER THREE: BALANCE OF POWER AND WORLD WAR I 1. Balance of Power Compare and contrast David Hume�s, Richard Cobden�s, and Woodrow Wilson�s ideas about the balance of power. Following the unprecedented Thirty Years War (1618-1648), the nine hegemonic wars that followed the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) were: the War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697); the War of the Spanish Succession (1702- 1713); the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748); the Seven Years War (also the Third Silesian War, 1756-1763); the War of American Independence (1775-1763); the War of the First Coalition against France (1792-1797); the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815); the First World War (1914-1918); andthe Second World War(1939-1945). Why do states balance power? 2. Power Define: power, power conversion, power resources, hard power vs. soft power. How has power been transformed in the age of information-based economies and transnational interdependence? 3. Balances as Distributions of Power Identify three meanings of balance of power. What is the hegemonic stability theory? [Its opposite is the hegemonic transition theory]. What dog did not bark in 1895 [over disputed territorial claims between Venezuela and British Guiana]? 4. Balance of Power as Policy How did Lord Palmerston and Winston Churchill articulate and Sir Edward Grey practice the policy of balancing? What is bandwagoning? Why is it risky in international politics? Identify five reasons countries join the stronger rather than the weaker side. 5. Balance of Power as Multipolar Systems What are the distinguishing features of a classical balance of power system? How did the balance of power system following German unification break down? Identify five periods in the nineteenth-century balance of power system [known as the Pax Britannica]. 6. Alliances Why are alliances form and why do they collapse? What were the hallmarks of Bismarck�s alliance system? 7. The Origins of World War I Identify some of the major international consequences of the First World War. 8. Three Levels of Analysis What were the two key structural changes at the systems level of analysis? What role was played by: the Tirpitz Plan, the Boer War, the Crowe memorandum? When did Britain stop playing the critical role of balancer (maintainer of the balance of power)? What was the effect of the Triple Entente? Identify four changes in the process? [Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn has a different insight into the �Dear Nicky� letter, noting that Nicholas was deceived by two of his generals]. [Correction: Herbert Spencer articulated the �survival of the fittest� philosophy]. 9. Why does Lenin�s imperialist theory fail to explain what happened at Fashoda in 1898? Who was threatened by the rise of nationalism in the Balkans and why? Why did the Coalition of Rye and Iron favor German expansionism? How did the personalities of Franz Josef, Count Berchtold, Nicholas II, and Wilhelm II contribute to the tragedy? 10. Was War Inevitable? What were the deep causes of the First World War? The intermediate causes? The precipitating cause? What was the Schlieffen Plan? What possibly would have made its assumptions obsolete by 1916? 11. What Kind of War? Counterfactually, what four other wars were possible? [Incidentally, United States entry into the war came shortly after the British intercepted the Zimmermann note, which offered Mexico incentives to ally itself with Germany if the Americans entered the war]. What three lessons does the author draw? APPENDICES: OTHER TAKES ON THESE ISSUES 1. Eyre Crowe, Memorandum, January 1, 1907 Either Germany is definitely aiming at a general political hegemony and maritime ascendancy, threatening the independence of her neighbours and ultimately the existence of England; Or Germany, free from any such clear-cut ambition, and thinking for the present merely of using her legitimate position and influence as one of the leading Powers in the council of nations, is seeking to promote her foreign commerce, spread the benefits of German culture, extend the scope of her national energies, and create fresh German interests all over the world wherever and whenever a peaceful opportunity offers. . . . It will, however, be seen, upon reflection, that there is no actual necessity for a British Government to determine definitely which of the two theories of German policy it will accept. For it is clear that the second scheme (of semiindependent evolution, not entirely unaided by statecraft) may at any stage merge into the first, or conscious-design scheme. Moreover, if ever the evolution scheme should come to be realized, the position thereby accruing to Germany would obviously constitute as formidable a menace to the re
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