Chapter 1 Summary 05/01/2013
Chapter 1 Summary:
Social Scientific Research: Method of testing theories and hypothesis by applying certain rules of
analysis to the observation and interpretation of reality under strictly delineated standards.
Six Steps in Research Process:
1. The formulation of theory
2. The operationalization of that theory
3. The selection of appropriate research techniques
4. The observation of behavior
5. The analysis of data
6. The interpretation of the results.
We often move to earlier stages when presented with new information.
The formulation of theory:
Selection of appropriate research question.
Question worth of research if it fulfills a scientific need – it’s answer will further our theoretical
knowledge of some phenomenon ▯ Basic Research
Question worthy of research if it fills societal need – answer may help us deal with one or another
problems faced by our society ▯ Applied Research
These 2 types of research are NOT mutually exclusive (asking one doesn’t mean you cant ask the
other) ▯ however, they often do compete
Trade off between the 2: Basic research benefits are often felt in the future whereas applied research
provides immediate benefits to humanity even though it may slow down the progression of our scientific
knowledge ▯ this choice made by researchers values.
Identify a problem which interests you as research takes a lot of hard work.
Identify elements and components that may be important for your research using skills of observation
and reasoning (Find major factors that bear on the behavior you are seeking to understand!) The operationalization of the theory:
The conversion or redefinition of our relatively abstract theories into concrete terms that will allow us to
actually measure what we are after. Going from conceptual level (thinking) to operational (deciding how
to solve it).
Thinking in practical te