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POLI 212 Chapter Notes -Xenophobia, Spoils System, Red Brigades

Political Science
Course Code
POLI 212
Hudson Meadwell

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Chapter 1
Themes and Implications
The World of States:
A country’s relative position to other states affects its ability to manage domestic
and international issues.
o Britain’s control over power and alliances in the 19th century show this
o As does Blair’s trying to cling to a relationship with the USA as Britain’s
influence dwindles
Fell to “second-tier” status during the 20th century as their “white dominions”
(Canada, US, New Zealand, Australia)
Independence pressure in other colonies led to their separation during WWII/the
postwar period
Legacy of WWII involvement, permanent member of UN Security Council
o However, secondary in relationship with US, resulting in post-9/11
Britain’s hesitant relations with the EU are controversial
Governing the Economy:
Since industrial revolution, Britain has depended on competitiveness abroad
Britain needs to conduct economic action under the assumption that they will not
again be a hegemon, and must thus remain competitive
The Democratic Idea:
The role of the British monarchy is a question coming to the forefront of British
November 1999, traditional House of Lords was abolished
Issues of constitution and unity with respect to Northern Ireland, Scotland, and
The Politics of Collective Identity:
British empire and aftermath is central to identity
The multiracial society resulting from decolonization has not been well accepted
in Britain
Especially post-7/7, immigration a key issue
Issues of gender politics emerging
Chapter 11
June 2005 Merkel’s arrow election victory
Troubles were unique in that they were an effect of a diverse multiparty
system that was unusual for Germany post-WWII.
Profile of Germany
Considered both Eastern and Western European

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Divided into 16 federal states
Population of 82.4 million
Evenly divided between Catholics and Protestants
Relatively homogenous despite: immigration from Turkey (right-less workers
from 1960s), Indian technology workers, migration across EU borders
54% of land in agricultural production
Unnatural borders have led to conflict
Critical Junctures:
1806-1871 Nationalism and German Unification
o State building requires an extension of collective identity beyond the
family, village, and local region to one encompassing a broader collection
of peoples.
o Nation states can promote economic growth more easily than fragmented
political entities can.
o Military strength is a fundamental tool that many nation-states use in their
formation and consolidation
1871-1918 Second Reich
o Bismarck allowed for male suffrage in the lower house, but concentrated
power in the upper house
o Primary goal was rapid industrialization, helped by state power and
banking system, thus no British/American-esque free market trial and
o Led to opposition:
Pressure to provide basic rights to liberal (free-market)/middle
class forces
Growth of the working middle class and Social Democratic Party
Persecuted and tolerated by Bismarck; banned SPD in 1878, but
created welfare state in the 1880s
“Cultural struggle” movement against the Catholic church
Relatively unsuccessful participation in the “struggle for Africa”
1919-1933 Weimar Republic
o Second Reich ended when Wilhelm II abdicated post-WWI
Followed by the SPD
First task of new government to surrender to allies received
blame for problems actually caused by Second Reich/WWI
o Democratic, but undermined by parties on the extreme right and left
o 1920s Hitler joins Nazi party, preaching hatred of the left,
internationalism, and non-Aryans
Exacerbated by the Great Depression
o Despite underwhelming democratic success, Nazis gradually gained
cabinet positions (Hitler chancellor)
Once in power started banning political parties
1933-1945 Third Reich
o Early years had two main goals:
Consolidate and institutionalize central political power

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Rebuilding the economy that had suffered through the crisis of the
1920s and Great Depression of the 1930s
o Policy suppressed trade unions and was thus big-business friendly
o Nationalism flared under warrior glorification and the use of scapegoats
(homosexuals, ethnic minorities, Jews obvs.)
o Rejected provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, remilitarized the
o WWII instigated with invasion of Poland in 1939, etc. etc.
1945-1990 A divided Germany
o Occupied by allies from 1945-1949
o Divided into Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) in the west and
communist German Democratic Republic (GDR) in the east Cold War,
division of Berlin
o FRG merged Catholics and Protestants into Christian Democratic Union
Reshaped conservatism as something that is compatible with
democracy, social welfare, antinationalism, and antimilitarism.
Governed alone for first 20 years of FRG
o FRG became parliamentary democracy constitutional provisions for free
elections, civil liberties, individual rights, independent judiciary
o Experienced stability and economic growth for 40 years
o Post-war settlement unique:
Highly organized business community
Weak central state and strong regional governments
Active tradition of worker participation within a strong labor
movement (corporatism)
Influential quasi-public institutions shaping and implementing
public policy at all levels of society
Continued commitment to the welfare state by both major parties
o GDR a one party Soviet-occupied state
o Provided employment and housing for citizens, yet was Stalinist and rigid
Citizens attempting to flee to West Germany were shot on spot
o GDR one of the Warsaw Pact’s strongest economies, but was loyal to the
Soviets in international affairs
1990-1998 The challenge of German unification
o Berlin Wall falls in November 1989
Currency reform fueled immigration in summer of 1990
o Official unification under Chancellor Helmut Kohl
Stressed Germany’s budget East Germany’s economy backward
to what economists predicted, very behind in terms of technology
o Trickled over high employment sparked far-right groups, scapegoating of
Turks, and violence against minority groups
o Kohl lost support by 1998, effects of sugar-coating wore off
o SPD elected in coalition with Greens center-left government
1998-2001 Germany in the euro era
o Two criticisms of German international relations:
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