POLI 227 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Human Development Index, Developing Country, Infant Mortality

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All suffer from at least some aspects of political, economic, or social underdevelopment
Developing World Commonalities: The Nature of Underdevelopment
At national level manifested in low per capita income, unequal income distribution, poor
infrastructure, limited use of modern tech, and low consumption of hydrocarbon and
hydroelectric power
At grassroots level connotes scarcity, substantial unemployment, substandard housing, poor
health conditions, low literacy + education levels, and inadequate nutrition
HDI considered better than per capita GNI at measuring quality of life
Arab States have higher per capita GNI than East Asia and Latin America but their HDI is
significantly lower
Per capita GDP and GNI do not give complete picture
Fail to take into account how equitably those quantities are distributed
Nigeria has higher GDP per capita than Pakistan and far higher than Mali but has a higher
percentage of people living in severe poverty
South Africa GDP per Capita and % in severe poverty > Peru's
Extent of poverty is a function of both its average income and how equally that income is
Economic Underdevelopment
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Extent of poverty is a function of both its average income and how equally that income is
distributed
Poverty correlated with poor social conditions (high infant mortality + low literacy rates)
Educated workforce = higher labour productivity
Improved education expands mass political participation + contributed to greater government
accountability to the governed
Countries with greater avg incomes tend to have higher HDIs
Allocated above avg % of spending toward improving health, sanitation, and education
Underachievers spend a lower % of their revenue on these services
US is an "overachiever" -> HDI ranking (5th) minus average income (14th) = +9
Peru (+33) is the greatest overachiever in the table
Two highest overachievers among developing nations are Cuba (+52) and Grenada (+30)
Greatest underachievers tend to be Middle Easter countries
Major portion of their income from exporting oil
Iraq (-23) is the greatest underachiever of the table
Most oil wealth in hands of dictator
Greatest underachiever in the world is Equatorial Guinea (-91)
Literacy column shows how widely social conditions vary among LDCs
Malnutrition, diseases, civil violence, but mainly HIV/AIDS
South African Pres Mbeki denied AIDS was caused by a virus
Life expectancy much lower in most African nations (Mali, Nigeria, South Africa)
Social Underdevelopment
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