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PSYC 100

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 100
Professor
Daniel J Levitin
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 9Motivation And EmotionHow does motivation activate direct and sustain Behaviour Motivation is the area of psychological science concerned with the factors that energize or stimulate behaviorswhat produces behavior Most of the general theories of motivation emphasize 4 essential qualities of motivational states Motivational states are Energizingthey activate or arouse behaviours they cause to do somethingDirectivethey guide behaviours toward satisfying specific goals or specific needs thirst motivates drinkingHelp people Persist in their behaviours until goals are achieved or needs are satisfiedDiffer in strength depending on internal or external factorsMultiple Factors Motivate Behaviour What do we need to do to stay alive We have biological and social needs including the need for achievement and the need to be with othersNeeds lead to goaldirected behaviours Failure to satisfy a particular need leads to physical or psychosocial impairment A needstate of deficiency which an be biological water or social Abraham Maslow 1940s believed that human are driven by many needs which arranged into a need hierarchyA theory exemplar of humanistic psychology viewing people as striving toward personal fulfilmentHumanist focus on the person in motivation it is you that desires food not your stomach Humanists perspective human beings are unique among animals because we continually try to improve ourselvesA state of selfactualization occurs when someone achieves hisher personal dreams and aspirations happinessMaslowwhat a man can be he must be 1968Controversy not empirical Ranking needs is not as simple as Maslows suggests We dont know if selfactualization is a requirement for happiness examplesgrve de la faim Drives and incentives Needs create arousal in which motivates behaviour Arousal is a genetic term sued to describe physiological activation ex increase in brain activity or increase autonomic responses quickened heart rateDrives are psychological states that encourage behaviours that satisfy needs Walter B 1920s coined the term homeostasis to describe the tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium exbody t at 37CClark Hullwhen an animal is deprived of some need the drive increases in proportion to the amount of deprivation Over time if a behaviour consistently reduces a drive it becomes a habit the likelihood that a behaviour will occurs is due to drive and habitIn some situation people choose to engage in actions that do not satisfy biological needs Drive states push us to reduce arousal but we are also pulled toward certain things in our environments Incentives are external objects or external goals rather than internal drives that motivate behaviours Getting a good gradesleeping Forces outside our conscious awareness can provide incentives for us to behave in particular wayssubliminal cues for example advertisingArousal and PerformanceIt seems to follow that more arousal will lead to more motivation and thus to better performance YerkesDodson law psychological principle named after two researchers 1908dictates that performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point and then decreases with increasing arousalEx a little anxiety for stress is better that none or a lot Motivated to seek an optimal level of arousalPleasure Freuddries are satisfied according to the pleasure principle which drives people to seek pleasure and avoid pain Originating with the ancient Greeks the concept of hedonism refers to humans desire for pleasantness The idea that pleasure motivates behaviour helps us understand a criticism of biological drive theories HullFrom an evolutionary perspective behaviours associated with pleasure often promote the anima survival and reproduction whereas behaviours associated with pain interfere with survival and reproductionex babies prefer sweetSome Behaviours Are Motivated for Their Own SakeSome activity seems to fulfill no obvious purpose other than enjoymentExtrinsic motivation emphasises the external goals an activity is directed toward such as reducing drive or obtaining a reward working to earn a pay check
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