# PSYC 213 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence, Intelligence Quotient, Neuroplasticity

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Chapter 12. Intelligence and creativity. PYSC 213
1. The Concept of Intelligence: Historical Background
- The concept of intelligence has been accomplished by means of intelligence tests.
The Binet-Simon Test
- Intelligence test, vary in form and content, but they tend to be similar to the original one
invented by Binet in collaboration with Theophile Simon.
Wanted to develop a test to measure the extent which a child could benefit from
schooling.
Designed to discriminate between normally and subnormally intelligent children.
Intelligence was defined as: a fundamental faculty, the alteration or lack of which
is of the utmost importance for practical life.
Their items are arranged in a real order of increasing difficulty
Allows children to be compared in terms of mental age (age level of the items a
child can pass)
- Stanford-Binet: made the eqution for IQ (intelligence quotient) scale, a useful
measure of intelligence could be obtained by dividing the person’s mental age (MA) by
his chronological age (CA)
IQ= MA/CA x 100
Normal children will have the IQ of 100.
Widely accepted test of intelligence
Charles SpearmanFactor Analysis
- Begins with a set of correlations between several measures, like different mental test
Then apply statistical procedures to get a number of underlying factors that
describe the structure of the set of correlations
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- the result of his analysis of pattern of correlations between different tests of mental
abilities, he created a two-factor theory of intelligence:
A hierarchical model
General intelligence “g” (the part of intelligence that is common to abilities)
underlies a set of specific abilities
A statistical procedure that derives a number of underlying factors that may
explain the structure of a set of correlation
Study: specific factors are represented by the abilities to do well in different
school subjects, such as French, English, mathematics, and music. Spearman
found that these specific abilities all were correlated with each other, but the inter-
correlation between specific abilities is not perfect. Each specific ability was seen
as determined in part by general intelligence and in part by circumstances specific
to that ability. In other words someone could have a high level of general
intelligence but vary in specific abilities.
- He formulated a statistical criterion that enabled him to estimate the amount of general
intelligence that computed to each specific ability. BUT it was hard to interpret the
correlations between scales purporting to measure different abilities.
- He believed that general intelligence represented the amount of mental energy( a
general non-specific energy that could be directed towards a specific ability) available to
an individual.
- He concluded that when estimating the effects of education on intelligence, heredity
was more important than education in determining general intelligence but specific
factors could be shaped by schooling.
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2. General Intelligence (g)
Lubinski
- General intelligence predicts academic achievement and work performance but only for
approximately half of the variability in performance. For example it is still necessary for
even really smart people to be prepared to work hard to fulfill their goals and to work
harder to be the best at it
- General intelligence provides the foundation on which hard work can be built
- Now contemporary environments in technological societies are increasingly complex,
requiring abilities for coping with change, dealing with novelty, quickly grasping the
relevance of innovative ideas for staying ahead of the curve and anticipating change.
They are considered a characteristic of general intelligence, they can be the reason to the
ability to adapt to a constant changing environment.
Fluid Intelligence and General Intelligence
- A distinction in general intelligence is between fluid and crystallized intelligence.
- Crystallized intelligence: consists of things you have learned, and may increase
- Fluid intelligence: the ability to think flexibly, which may increase when you are
young but levels off as you mature.
- General intelligence is typically assessed using tests of the ability to grasp unfamiliar
relationships, rather then tests of the content of the knowledge.
- Eduction: draw out
- General intelligence may be the ability to draw out the relationships that obtain in the
novel situation.
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## Document Summary

Pysc 213: the concept of intelligence: historical background. The concept of intelligence has been accomplished by means of intelligence tests. Intelligence test, vary in form and content, but they tend to be similar to the original one invented by binet in collaboration with theophile simon. Wanted to develop a test to measure the extent which a child could benefit from schooling. Designed to discriminate between normally and subnormally intelligent children. Intelligence was defined as: a fundamental faculty, the alteration or lack of which is of the utmost importance for practical life. Their items are arranged in a real order of increasing difficulty. Allows children to be compared in terms of mental age (age level of the items a child can pass) Stanford-binet: made the eqution for iq (intelligence quotient) scale, a useful measure of intelligence could be obtained by dividing the person"s mental age (ma) by his chronological age (ca) Normal children will have the iq of 100.

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