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Psychology (1,418)
PSYC 328 (50)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes.doc

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PSYC 328
Blaine Ditto

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PSYC328 Chapter 1 Notes What Is Health Psychology: • Healthy psychology is devoted to understanding psychological influences on how people stay healthy, why they become ill, and how they respond when they do get ill • Health psychologists study both issues and promote interventions to help people stay well or get over illness • 1948: WHO (World Health Organization) defined health as “a complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” • Health is not defined as the absence of illness but rather the achievement of balance among physi- cal, mental, and social well-being • Health promotion and maintenance: • Getting children to develop good health habits, promote regular exercise, design media cam- paign • Prevention and treatment of illness: • People in high-stress occupation how to manage stress effectively • Help people who are ill to adjust more successfully to their illness • Health psychologists focus on the etiology and correlates of health, illness, and dysfunction in addi- tion to analyzing and attempt to improve the health care system and the formulation of health policy • Etiology refers to origins or causes of illness; especially the behavioural and social factors that contribute to health or illness • Dysfunction deals with factors that can include health habits such as alcohol consumption smok- ing, exercise, wearing of seat belts, and ways of coping with stress How Has Our View Of The Mind-Body Relationship Changed Over Time? Historically (Descartes), philosophers viewed the mind and body being part of the same system and • of two separate ones (continuous changing views) • Earliest times, mind and body were considered to be a single unit; disease arose when evil spirits entered the body and that these spirits could be exorcised through the treatment process • Stone age skull remains shows holes in a process called “trephination” which allowed evil spirits to leave the body while shaman performed the treatment ritual • Greeks first developed humoral theory of illness (Hippocrates); disease arises when four circulating fluids of the body (blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm) are out of balance and treatment is to balance these fluids • Middles Ages - supernatural explanations of illness; god’s method of punishment. Cure involves driving out evil by torturing the body with prayers and penance (Church dominated era) Psychoanalytic Contributions: • Freud’s early work on conversion hysteria gave rise to modern psychology • Freud said that specific unconscious conflicts can produce particular physical disturbances that symbolize the repressed psychological conflicts • In conversion hysteria, the patient converts the conflict into a symptom via the voluntary nervous system; he or she then becomes relatively free of the anxiety the conflict would otherwise produce Psychosomatic Medicine: • Conversion hysteria is not commonly seen anymore but the idea the specific illnesses are produced by individuals’ internal conflicts helped Flanders Dunbar and Franz Alexander link patterns of per- sonality rather than a single specific conflict to specific illnesses • Freud: conversion reactions occur via voluntary nervous system with no necessary physiological
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