COMMERCE 2KA3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Spreadsheet, Microsoft Powerpoint

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Chapter 7: Database Fundamentals
Introduction
Data: Raw facts that describe the characteristics of an event
Information: data converted into a meaningful useful context
Understanding Information
The incredible growth in sales of the Enterprise Search Appliance tool is a
strong indicator that businesses desire technologies that help organize and
provide access to information
Informational Granularity: refers to the extent of detail within the information
(fine and detailed or coarse and abstract information).
Employees must be able to correlate the different levels, formats, and
granularities of information when making decisions
Range Examples
Individual Sales, expenses,
budgets, etc.
can be
conceptualized at
each
of these levels.
Department
Enterprise
Range Examples
Document Letters, memos, faxes, e-mails, reports, marketing materials,
training materials (i.e. MS Word)
Presentation Product, strategy, process, financial, customer, competitor
(i.e. MS PowerPoint)
Spreadsheet Sales, marketing, industry, financial, competitor, customer,
order (i.e. MS Excel)
Database Customer, employee, sales, order, supplier, manufacturer (i.e.
MS Access)
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Information Quality
Business Decisions are only as good as the quality of the information used to
make the decisions
Characteristics of high quality information :
oAccuracy : Are all the values correct? For example, is the name spelled
correctly? Is the dollar amount recorded properly?
oCompleteness: Are any of the values missing? For example, is the
address complete including street, city, province, and postal code?
oConsistency: Is aggregate or summary information in agreement with
detailed information? For example, do all total fields equal the true
total of the individual fields?
oUniqueness: Is each transaction, entity, and event represented only
once in the information? For example, are there duplicate customers
Range Examples
Detail
(Fine)
How many Honda Civic’s did Joe Smith
sell?
Summary How many units of each Honda model
were sold by each sales person in
Ontario?
Aggregate
(Course)
How many units were sold by each
automaker in North America?
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oTimeliness: Is the information current with respect to the business
requirements? For example, is information updated weekly, daily or
hourly
Understanding the Costs of Poor Information: Using the wrong information
can lead to making the wrong decision.
oMaking the wrong decision can cost time, money, and even
reputations.
oBad information can cause serious business ramifications
Understanding the Benefits of Good Information: High quality information can
significantly improve the chances of making a good decision and directly
increase an organization’s bottom line
oQuality information does not automatically guarantee that every
decision made is going to be a good one, since people ultimately
make decisions. Bust such information ensures that the basis of the
decisions is accurate
Database Fundamentals
An organization must:
oDetermine what information it requires
oAcquire that information
oOrganize the information in a meaningful fashion
oAssure the information’s quality
oProvide software tools so that employees throughout the organization
can access the information they require
Database: maintains information about various types of objects (inventory),
events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses).
Database management System: software through which users and
application programs interact with a database. One is the information and the
other is the software people use to manipulate the information
The primary task of a database is to store and organize every piece of
information related to transactions and business events
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