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Chapter 8

BIOL 102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Endergonic Reaction, Exergonic Reaction, Kinetic Energy


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 102
Professor
Dr. W.A. Snedden
Chapter
8

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Chapter 8
Metabolism- total of all chemical reactions that occur in an organism
2 factors of chemical reactions
- Direction- many cells use ATP to drive reactions in one direction
- Rate- catalysts called enzymes can speed up the rate
Kinetic energy- associated with movement
Potential energy- due to structure or location
Chemical energy- energy in molecular bonds
Entropy- a measure of the disorder that cannot be harnessed to do work
Free energy- measure of system’s tendency to change to a more stable state
Equilibrium- state of maximum stability
Exergonic reaction- has release of energy and is spontaneous
Endergonic reaction- absorbs free energy from surroundings and is nonspontaneous
Energy coupling- using an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction
H= G - TS
H- enthalpy or total energy
G- free energy
T- absolute temperature in kelvin (k)
S- entropy (unusable energy)
- If G is negative- reaction is exergonic
- If G is positive- reaction is endergonic
- If G=0- reaction is at equilibrium
Mass action ratio- even if a reaction is uphill, you can drive a reaction in the unfavourable
direction by manipulating the product: substrate ratio (EXAM)
Enzymes
- Catalyst- speed up the reaction without being consumed
- Enzymes speed up reaction by lowering the activation energy of a reaction
- Often highly regulated
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