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COMM 151 (54)
Chapter 4

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Queen's University
COMM 151
Christopher Miners

COMM 151 – Chapter 4 Notes – Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour What are Values?  Values: A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others  Preference: Values have to do with that we consider to be good and bad  Values are motivational since they signal how we believe we should & should not behave  Broad tendency means that values that are general and do not predict behaviour  People tend to hold values structured around achievement, power, autonomy, tradition…  Generational Differences in Values  Traditionalist vs. Baby Boomers vs. Generation X vs. Millennials  Important since if there is a good fit between a person’s values and those of the organizations, it will lead to positive work attitudes and behaviours  Cultural Differences in Values  16-40% of managers who receive foreign assignments terminate them early because they perform poorly or do not adjust to the culture  Work Centrality  People whose work is a central life interest tended to work more hours  Variation in vacation times across cultures  Hofstede’s Study  Power distance: The extent to which society members accept an unequal distribution of power, including those who hold more and those holding less  Uncertainty Avoidance: The extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations  Weak uncertainty avoidance are less concerned with rules and regulations, conformity, and hard work is not seen as a virtue  Masculinity/Femininity  Masculine societies differentiate gender roles – ie. the dominance of men, their economic performance  Feminine cultures accept sexual equality and stress quality of life  Individualism: Stress independence, individual initiative and privacy  Collectivism: Favour interdependence and loyalty to one’s family/clan  Long-Term/Short-term Orientation  Cultures with a long-term orientation tend to be stress persistence, perseverance, thrift, and close attention to status differences  Cultures with a short-term orientation stress personal steadiness and stability, face-saving, and social niceties Implications of Cultural Variation  Theories and behaviours in one country will not always cross into another country  How Should I lead? How should we make this decision? – the same everywhere, just diff answers  Failure to implement North American practices in Japan since cultures are different  Appreciating differences in cultures are important in understanding the needs of customers around the world  Companies need to select, train, and develop employees with an appreciation of cultural differences and the implications of these differences for behaviour in organizations 1 COMM 151 – Chapter 4 Notes – Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour What are Attitudes?  Attitudes: A fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people  Involve evaluations directed toward specific targets  Tendencies to respond to the target of the attitude  Often influence our behaviour toward some object, situation, person, or group  Behaviour is most likely to correspond to attitudes when people have direct experience with the target of the attitude and when attitude is held confidently  Belief + Value => Creates Attitude → effects behaviour What is Job Satisfaction?  Job Satisfaction: A collection of attitudes people have about their jobs  Facet Satisfaction: Tendency for workers to be more/less satisfied with various facets of the job  Ex. I love my job but I hate my boss  Job satisfaction measured by the JDI ( Job Descriptive Index) – questionnaire  Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ): Respondents indicate how happy they are with various aspects of their job from very satisfied to very dissatisfied What Determines Job Satisfaction?  Job Satisfaction is the product of associated beliefs and values – these two aspects cause differences in job satisfaction even when jobs are identical  People differ in perceptions concerning the actual nature of the job  Discrepancy theory: Asserts that satisfaction is of unction of the discrepancy between the job outcome people want and the outcomes that they perceive they obtain Fairness  Three Kinds of Fairness 1. Distributive Fairness: when people receive the outcomes they think the deserve from their jobs  Equity Theory: inputs that people perceive themselves as investing in a job and the outcomes that the job provides are compared against the inputs and outcomes of some other relevant person or group   Inputs : Anything they give up/offer/trade in exchange for outcomes  Ex. Training, Education  Outcomes: Factors that the organization distributes to the employees in return for the inputs  Pay, career opportunities  Inequality does arise  You Friend (vice versa) 2 COMM 151 – Chapter 4 Notes – Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour  Employee who frequently remains on the job after hours and receives no special praise or extra pay will perceive inequality 2. Procedural Fairness: individuals see the process used to determine the outcomes as reasonable concerned with how the outcome are decided and allocated  Follows consistent procedures over time and across people  Uses accurate information and appears unbiased  Allows two-way communication during the allocation process  Welcomes appeals of the procedure/allocation 3. Interactional Fairness: people feel that they have received respectful and informative communication about some outcome  Possible for absolutely fair outcomes Extends beyond the actual procedures and uses interpersonal treatment to learn about the outcomes Disposition  The underlying dispositional view of job satisfaction is the idea that some people are predisposed by virtue of their personalities to be more or less satisfied despite changes in discrepancy or fairness  Suggests that some personality characteristics originating in genetics or early learning contribute to adult job satisfaction  People who are extraverted & conscientious and those who are high in self-esteem & internal locus of control tend to be more satisfied with their jobs, while those high in neuroticism are less satisfied Mood and Emotion  Here we are speaking about the role of affect as a determinant of job satisfaction  Affect is simply a broad label for feeli
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