COMM 151 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Job Satisfaction, Geert Hofstede, Discrepancy Theory
Chapter 4: Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour
Values: a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others
Preference: values have to do with what we consider good and bad
Values are motivational b/c they signal attractive and avoid/change unattractive aspects of environment
Broad tendency: values are very general and that they do not predict
People tend to hold values structured around such factors as: achievement, power, tradition, welfare, etc.
Value also signals how we believe, should, and should not behave.
Values are very general and don’t predict behaviour in specific situation
Generational Differences in Value
Any generational differences in work values is important because there is much evidence that a good “fit”
between a person’s values and those of the organization (person-organization fit) leads to positive work
attitudes and behaviouts
Organizations have to tailer job designed, leadership styles and benefits to the generational mix of workforce
The cultural differences are responsible for 16-40% of business being terminated because they do poorly or
can’t adapt to the culture
Cultural differences in values:
Lack of understanding of cultural businesses can fail a business
o People with higher “central life interest” in work tend to work longer hours
o Also people wanted to continue working even if they won the lottery
o Countries like Japan has high “central life interest” and therefore work and social life go hand in hand.
Japanese managers are expected to work long hours and socialize with co-workers after work. A
manager from UK might find it hard to adapt.
o Dutch social scientist Geert Hofstede questions over 100,000 employees of IBM in 40 different countries.
o He found that 4 dimensions which work- related valued differed among cultures
o They are: Power Distance, Uncertainty avoidance, Masculinity/Femininity, individualism/collectivism
1. Power Distance: The extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members
In cultures that have high power distance, inequality is natural, and superiors are inaccessible
and power differences are highlighted. E.g., Japanese.
In cultures that have low power distance, inequality is minimized, superiors are accessible and
power differences are downplayed. E.g. Denmark, Israel
2. Uncertainty avoidance: The extend which people are uncomfortable with uncertain/ambiguous situations
Strong uncertainty cultures emphasis the rules and regulation, hard work, conformity, and
security. E.g Japan, Greece, Portugal
Weak uncertainty cultures are less concerned about the rules and whatever is above. E.g.
Singapore, Denmark, Sweden
The more masculine the culture, they differentiate the roles of the gender, support male
dominance, stress economic performance. Japan, Austria, Mexico
FEMALE: gender equality, sexual equality, quality of life –Bitches want these things. Top
feminine countries: Norway, Sweden, Denmark
4. Individualism/ Collectivism: Individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative, and privacy.
Collective cultures favour interdependence and loyalty to family and clan
Countries supporting individualism: Canada, US,
Countries supporting collectivism: Columbia, Pakistan
5. Long- Term/ Short- Term: This was not part of Hofstede’s study but was performed after by Canadian
Michael Bond that catered itself more to the eastern countries.
Long term orientation cultures stresses persistence, perseverance, thrift, and to status
difference. E.g. China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea
Short term orientation cultures stress personal steadiness and stability, face-saving, and social
niceties. E.g. US, Canada, Great Britain.
Implications of Cultural Variation
Exporting OB theories
The behaviour theories, research, and practices from Western countries (US, Canada) might not
translate well into other cultures.
The basic questions are very similar (how should I lead? How should we make this decision?)
remains the same but the answers provided in different countries differ from North America.
Importing OB theories
Not all OB theories are from North America and some Japanese management techniques are
used in our country like quality circle, total quality management, and just in time (JIT)
Although there are cases where OB theories are successful, there are many failures because of
our basic value differences.
Understanding the cultural value differences will enable Organization to import OB theories by
fixing it to fit the value of the home country.
Appreciating Global Customers
When an organization goes and enters different culture, it is important to appreciate their own
Also when customers are entering the organizations’ culture, it is important to appreciate their
cultural value. Countries like Canada, display cultural diversity and is important for the
organization to adapt.
- Definition: Positive or negative feelings concerning objects, people, or events
- Attitudes often influence our behavior toward some object, situation, person, or group.
- ATTITUDE Behaviour
- Attitudes do not always stay consistent with behaviour, although they provide useful information about people’s
actions and what we can observe.
- Attitudes are a function of what we think and what we feel.
- Belief + Value Attitude Behaviour
- Organizations try to change attitudes of employees by using a communicator who tries to persuade and change
the beliefs and values of the audience. E.g. Safety training.
- Persuasions that modify or emphasize values are usually emotionally oriented whereas persuasion that try to
change beliefs are usually rationally oriented.
- Job satisfaction refers to collection of attidues that people have about their jobs. The two satisfactions are
FACET Satisfaction and OVERALL Satisfaction
- Facet satisfaction is the tendency that employees are more or less satisfied with various facets of the job. E.g. I
love my work but I hate my boss. (they both love and hate different facets of the job.
- Overall satisfaction is an overall or summary indicator of the employee’s attitude toward his/her job. Overall
satisfaction cuts across various numbers of facets. E.g. on whole I like my job but there are different aspects
which I don’t like.
- Popular measure of job satisfaction is Job Descriptive Index (JDI) The employee’s answers questionnaire that are
designed around the five facets of satisfaction. The employees answer by answering yes, no, or ?(undecided)
(LOOK AT pg 120 Exhibit 4.5) for sample JDI
- Another measure of job satisfaction is Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). The questions included:
o The competence of my supervisor in making decisions
o The way my job provides for steady employment
o The chance to do things for other people
o My pay and the amount of work I do.
What Determines Job Satisfaction
o Discrepancy theory states that job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between job outcomes
wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained.
o Employees might believe the jobs they perform are equal but the expectations of the outcomes from
their jobs may differ.
o Another factor that determines job satisfaction is fairness. Issues of fairness affect both what people
want in the jobs and how they react to discrepancies of organizational life.
Distributive Fairness (distributive justice)
Fairness that occurs when people receive the outcomes they think they deserve from their jobs.
This is determined by EQUITY Theory. Equity theory compares employee’s perceived investment
to the company to the outcome. This is than compared to others.
Procedural Fairness (procedural justice)
This occurs when individuals see the process used to determine the outcomes as being
For procedural fairness to be successful there are 4 allocators:
Follow consistent procedures over time and across people
Uses accurate information and appears unbiased
Allows two way communication during the allocation process
Welcomes appeals of the procedure or allocation
Interactional Fairness (Interactional justice)
This occurs when the people feel that they have received respectful and informative
communications about some outcomes.
Interactional fairness is absolutely necessary because absolutely fair outcomes may be
perceived as unfair when they are inadequately and unclearly explained.
E.g. nurses who received cutbacks showed less insomnia when the supervisor explained the
cutback (using Interactional fairness) compared to untrained supervisors