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Chapter 5

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COMM 151
Christopher Miners

COMM 151 – Chapter 5 Notes – Theories of Work Motivation What is Motivation  Motivation: The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal  Effort  This is the strength of a persons work-related behaviour  Also defined as the amount of effort the person exhibits on the job  Effort should be exerted in a manner appropriate to your job  Persistence  This is the persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their tasks  Direction  Do workers channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the organization?  Motivation means working smart, as well as working hard  Goals  We assume that motivated people act to enhance an org’s objectives  Channelling their persistent efforts in directions that will benefit the organization to accomplish their goal Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation  Intrinsic Motivation: Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task; usually self-applied – ex. Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, etc.  Extrinsic Motivation: Motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task and is usually applied by someone other than the person being motivated – ex. Pay, benefits, etc.  Self –determination Theory (SDT) : A theory of motivation used to explain what motivates people and whether motivation is autonomous or controlled  Autonomous motivation: When people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors  Controlled Motivation: When people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward  Sometimes extrinsic factors can lead to autonomous motivation when an individual internalizes the values or attitudes associated with a behaviour and, as a result, no longer requires the extrinsic factor to motivate them to perform  Availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce intrinsic motivations stemming from the task itself – people believe they are performing well only because of the money  When extrinsic rewards depend on performances then the motivating potential of intrinsic rewards decreases  Making extrinsic rewards contingent on performance makes individuals feel less competent and less in control of their own behaviour Motivation and Performance  Performance: The extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization  Motivation contributes to performance, but it is not the only factor  Three Dimensions  Task performance, organizational citizenship behaviour, and counterproductive work behaviour COMM 151 – Chapter 5 Notes – Theories of Work Motivation  Big five personality traits and core self-evaluations also predict job performance  There are two forms of intelligence that are important for performance:  General Cognitive Ability: Person’s basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources – can predict job performance based on this info  Intelligence or mental ability  Efficiency and capacity of processing information  Cognitive abilities such as verbal, numerical, spatial, and reasoning abilities  Emotional Intelligence: An individual's ability to understand and manage his/her own + others’ feelings and emotions 1. Perceiving Emotions accurately in oneself and others  Ability to identify emotions in people’s faces and in non-verbal behaviour 2. Using emotions to facilitate thinking  The ability to use emotions in functional ways such as making decisions and other cognitive process ( creativity, integrative thinking)  Involves being able to shift one’s emotions and generate new emotions that can help one to see things in a different way 3. Understanding emotions, emotional luggage, and the signals conveyed by emotions  Being able to understand emotional information, the determinants and consequences of emotions, and how emotions change over time  Understanding how different situations generate emotions as well as how they and others are influenced by various emotions 4. Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals  An individual is able to regulate, adjust, and change his or her emotions as well as other’s emotions to suit the situation  To be effective at managing emotions, one must be able to perceive emotions, integrate and assimilate emotions, and understand emotions Need Theories of Work Motivation  Need Theories: Motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance – needs are psychological & physiological wants or desires  Need Theories are concerned with what motivates workers (incentives/goals)  Maslow Hierarchy of Needs: A five level hierarchal need theory of motivation that specifies that the lowest-level unsatisfied need has the greatest motivating potential No one of the 5 i. Psychological  Needs that must be satisfied for survival ex. Food, water, shelter needs is the  Org’s satisfy this with the minimum pay necessary for survival “best” motivator; ii. Safety motivation  Needs for security, stability, freedom from anxiety depends on the  Conditions that meet these needs: safe working conditions, job security, person’s fair and sensible rules and regulations, insurance plans, etc. iii. Belongingness position in the hierarchy.  Need for social interaction, affection, love, companionship, friendship  Org factors include opportunities to interact with others on the job, friendly and supportive supervision, opportunities for teamwork, etc. COMM 151 – Chapter 5 Notes – Theories of Work Motivation iv. Esteem  Needs for feelings of adequacy, competence, independence, strength  To satisfy needs, orgs give opportunities to master tasks leading to feelings of achievement and responsibility, awards, promotions, job titles, ect. v. Self-Actualization  Most difficult to define as they involve the desire to develop one’s true potential as an individual to the fullest extent and to express one’s skills, talents, and emotions in a manner that is most personally fulfilling  Maslow suggests that these people have clear perceptions of reality, accept themselves and others, and are independent and creative. Aldafer’s ERG Theory  This is a 3 level theory (existence, relatedness, growth) that allows for movement up and down the hierarchy  Less concrete needs – growth needs – become more compelling and more desired as they are fulfilled  The more lower level needs are gratified the higher level needs satisfaction is desired 1. Existence Needs  The needs satisfied by material substance or condition ex. Food, shelter, pay 2. Relatedness Needs  Satisfied by open communication and exchange of thoughts and feelings with other organizational members  Alderfer stresses relatedness needs are satisfied by open, accurate, honest interaction rather than uncritical pleasantness 3. Growth Needs  Needs that are fulfilled by strong personal involvement in work setting  They involve full utilization of one’s skills and abilities and the creative development of new skills and abilities  This theory does not assume lower-level needs must be achieved first – any order  This theory assumes that if high level needs are ungratified, ppl will increase their desire for the gratification of lower-level needs  and vice-versa McClelland’s Theory of Needs – Read Research Support pg. 155  This is a non-hierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation  Need for achievement: A strong desire to perform challenging tasks well in order to better their own performance – concerned with innovation/long-term goals  A preference for situations in which personal responsibility can be taken for outcomes – don’t like situations where outcomes are by chance  A tendency to set moderately difficult goals that provide for calculated risks  Easy goals = little sense of achievement, but not impossible goals either  A desire for performance feedback – so they can modify attainment strategies  Need for affiliation: strong desire to establish and maintain friendly, compatible interpersonal relationships i.e. they want others to like them – learn to network quickly  Need for Power: Strong desire to have influence over to others  People will be motivated to seek out and perform well in jobs that match their needs COMM 151 – Chapter 5 Notes – Theories of Work Motivation Managerial Implications of Need Theories  Appreciate Diversity  Lack of support of the ridged hierarchy suggests that mangers must be adept at evaluating the needs of individual employees and offering incentives or goals that corresponds to their needs  Needs vary for emplo
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