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Chapter 5

COMM 151 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Belongingness, Work Motivation, Equity Theory


Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 151
Professor
Christopher Miners
Chapter
5

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COMM 151 Chapter 5 Notes Theories of Work Motivation
What is Motivation
Motivation: The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal
Effort
This is the strength of a persons work-related behaviour
Also defined as the amount of effort the person exhibits on the job
Effort should be exerted in a manner appropriate to your job
Persistence
This is the persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their tasks
Direction
Do workers channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the organization?
Motivation means working smart, as well as working hard
Goals
We assume that motivated people act to enhance an org’s objectives
Channelling their persistent efforts in directions that will benefit the organization
to accomplish their goal
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation: Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker
and the task; usually self-applied ex. Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, etc.
Extrinsic Motivation: Motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task
and is usually applied by someone other than the person being motivated ex. Pay, benefits, etc.
Self determination Theory (SDT) : A theory of motivation used to explain what motivates
people and whether motivation is autonomous or controlled
Autonomous motivation: When people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors
Controlled Motivation: When people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or
extrinsic reward
Sometimes extrinsic factors can lead to autonomous motivation when an individual internalizes
the values or attitudes associated with a behaviour and, as a result, no longer requires the
extrinsic factor to motivate them to perform
Availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce intrinsic motivations stemming from the task
itself people believe they are performing well only because of the money
When extrinsic rewards depend on performances then the motivating potential of
intrinsic rewards decreases
Making extrinsic rewards contingent on performance makes individuals feel less
competent and less in control of their own behaviour
Motivation and Performance
Performance: The extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the
objectives of the organization
Motivation contributes to performance, but it is not the only factor
Three Dimensions
Task performance, organizational citizenship behaviour, and counterproductive
work behaviour

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COMM 151 Chapter 5 Notes Theories of Work Motivation
Big five personality traits and core self-evaluations also predict job performance
There are two forms of intelligence that are important for performance:
General Cognitive Ability: Person’s basic information processing capacities and
cognitive resources can predict job performance based on this info
Intelligence or mental ability
Efficiency and capacity of processing information
Cognitive abilities such as verbal, numerical, spatial, and reasoning abilities
Emotional Intelligence: An individual's ability to understand and manage his/her own +
others’ feelings and emotions
1. Perceiving Emotions accurately in oneself and others
Ability to identify emotions in people’s faces and in non-verbal behaviour
2. Using emotions to facilitate thinking
The ability to use emotions in functional ways such as making decisions
and other cognitive process ( creativity, integrative thinking)
Involves being able to shift one’s emotions and generate new emotions
that can help one to see things in a different way
3. Understanding emotions, emotional luggage, and the signals conveyed by emotions
Being able to understand emotional information, the determinants and
consequences of emotions, and how emotions change over time
Understanding how different situations generate emotions as well as how
they and others are influenced by various emotions
4. Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals
An individual is able to regulate, adjust, and change his or her emotions as
well as other’s emotions to suit the situation
To be effective at managing emotions, one must be able to perceive
emotions, integrate and assimilate emotions, and understand emotions
Need Theories of Work Motivation
Need Theories: Motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the
conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes
to performance needs are psychological & physiological wants or desires
Need Theories are concerned with what motivates workers (incentives/goals)
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs: A five level hierarchal need theory of motivation that
specifies that the lowest-level unsatisfied need has the greatest motivating potential
i. Psychological
Needs that must be satisfied for survival ex. Food, water, shelter
Org’s satisfy this with the minimum pay necessary for survival
ii. Safety
Needs for security, stability, freedom from anxiety
Conditions that meet these needs: safe working conditions, job security,
fair and sensible rules and regulations, insurance plans, etc.
iii. Belongingness
Need for social interaction, affection, love, companionship, friendship
Org factors include opportunities to interact with others on the job,
friendly and supportive supervision, opportunities for teamwork, etc.
No one of the 5
needs is the
“best”
motivator;
motivation
depends on the
person’s
position in the
hierarchy.
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