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Chapter 11

PSYC 251 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Egocentrism, Social Comparison Theory, Imaginary Audience

Course Code
PSYC 251
Elizabeth Kelley

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Week 10 Online Lecture Attachment, Identity and Self-Esteem Development
Video: The Rouge Task
Rouge task is given as an indicator of self-awareness
Not generally passed until around 18 months
Does this mean the child has no concept of themselves before this?
o Probably not
Video: Ainsworth's Strange situation
Assess the quality of attachment child has w caregiver
Mother and child play in a new room
Stranger enters when child and mother present
Mother then leaves the room
o Observe how the child reacts
Stranger tries to comfort child if distressed (usually fails to comfort child)
Mother returns and comforts child
Interested how the child reacts when the mother returns to the room ("the reunion")
Internal working model: the child who behaves securely in strange situation views:
o the model of the parent as available and loving
o Complementary model of self as worthy of that love
Secure base behaviour shown, although mom not following instructions very well (mom
told not to initiate interactions but in video, she does initiate)
Child adjusts to stranger well
Child is not comforted by stranger, but very easily comforted by mother
o Shows attachment for mother
• What is attahet and how is it measured?
• What are the effets of attahet o soial futioig?
• Ho does the self-concept emerge?
• Ho does self-esteem develop and how is it measured?
10.1 What is attachment and how is it measured?
First proposed by Bowlby
o Evolutionary factor that develops to increase survival (attachment similar to
o Secure base behavior increases survival
Attachment: emotional bonds children form w primary caregivers
Secure base: presence of a trusted caregiver provides child w ability to explore the env
Secure attachment provides children w a secure base for exploration and contributes to a
positive internal working model of relationships in general
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o Enable child to learn about the world
o Provides sense of assurance
o Serves as a safe place when child feels scared
Innate basis but influenced by environment
Allows safety and exploration
Infants depend on parents to satisfy needs and comfort when in stress
Internal working model:
o If child has secure attachment, child believes ppl are reliable and that he/she is
worthy of love
o If insecure attachment (disorganized attachment), children believe they can't
depend on ppl and are not worthy of love
Influences development of self & expectations of others: all relationships throughout life
Aisorth’s “trage “ituatio
Reatio to the other’s retur ke
Also seure ase ehaior, separatio distress, ad reatio to strager ad strager’s
Primary action they are looking for:
o Is the mother able to comfort the child when she returns
o Does the child calm down quickly
o Also look at secure base behaviour at the beginning and at the end (w the mother vs
the stranger)
How much the infant gets distressed
If the stranger is able to comfort the child better than the mother, attachment
to mother is not good
Aspects of
Behaviour Assessed
Experimenter introduces caregiver and infant to the
unfamiliar room, shows parent where to sit and shows baby
toys; then leaves.
Caregiver and child are alone; caregiver is told not to
initiate interaction but to respond to baby as appropriate
Exploration and use
of parent as a secure
Stranger enters and is seated quietly for 1 minute; then
talks to caregiver for 1 minute; then tries to interact with
baby the last minute
Reaction to the
Mother leaves child alone with the stranger, who lets baby
play but offers comfort if needed. Segment is shortened if
the baby becomes to distress.
Separation distress
and reaction to
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Caregiver calls to baby from outside door; enters the room,
and pauses by the door. Stranger leaves. Caregiver lets
infant play or may comfort infant if distressed.
Reaction to reunion
with parents
Parent leave infant alone in the room. Segment is ended if
infant is too distressed.
Separation distress
Stranger enters rooms, greets infant, and pauses. She sits or
comforts infant if the infant is upset. Segment is ended if
the infant is very upset.
Ability to be soothed
by stranger
Caregiver calls from outside the door, enters and greets
infant pauses. Caregiver sits if infant is not upset but may
provide comfort if infant is distressed. Caregiver allows
infant to return to play if interested.
Reaction to reunion
Strange Situation Classifications
Secure: easily comforted by mom, have secure base (60%)
Insecure/Resistant: clingy but then resists comfort (10%)
o Ted NOT to use other as seure ase ad do’t eplore the roo
o Stay by mom's side and become very upset when she leaves
o When mother returns, they run to her to be comforted but become resistant after
mother picks them up
Insecure/Avoidant: spends most time ignoring mom (15%)
o Do’t hek i to see if other is athing
o Do’t get er upset he other leaes
o When she returns, they ignore her
Disorganized (Newer classification): confused, fearful approach, freezing behaviour (15%)
o Tend to have worst prognosis
Factors Affecting Secure Attachment Relationship
Sensitivity is most important
Sensitivity: propt attetio to ifat’s eeds, osistet, appropriate, ad tederess/
Definitely seems to be more the mom than child that affects the attachment relationship
o Particularly early in development
Difficult temperament makes difficult but can be done
Intervention studies for difficult children or depressed moms makes it harder to form
Genes may have interactive effect
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