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Spanish Language and Literature
SPAN 112
Consuelo Kani

Spanish 112 - Unit 6 - Lesson 11/12 - Grammar ▯ 1. Subjunctive used to reflect the speakers feelings or attitudes toward an event or when the speaker views events as uncertain, unreal or hypothetical. Present Form of Regular Verbs ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ -ar -er / -ir e a ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ *when using subjuntive the irregular form of the ▯ ▯es ▯ ▯ a▯ ▯ person singular is used for all of the tenses. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ e ▯ ▯ a▯ ▯ Conocer - Conozc ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Decir - Dig ▯ e▯os ▯ ▯ amo▯ ▯ Hacer - Hag ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Traer - Traig éis áis ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Venir - Veng en an Present Form of stem changing Verbs ending in -ar/ -er still have the same changes ▯ ex. recomendar -recomiend , recordar -recuerd, entendar - entiend, volver - vuelv * remember that it doen’t change in nosotros and vosotros Verbs ending in -ir have the regular changes except unstressed e changes to i an unstressed o changes to u in nosotros and vosotros Mentir (to lie) Dormir mienta mintamos duerma durmamos mientas mintáis duermas duráis mienta mientan duerma dueran Present Form of Irregular Verbs (DESSI) Dar dé des dé demos deis den Estar esté estés esté estemos estéis estén Saber sepa sepas sepa sepamos sepáis sepan Ser sea seas sea seamos seáis sean Ir vaya vayas vaya vayamos vayáis vayan Maggie Smith▯ Pg. 1 Spanish 112 - Unit 6 - Lesson 11/12 - Grammar ▯ 2. Uses of the Subjuntive • used in the dependent clause, subordinate to the main clause ▯ ex. Sugiero (main clause) que llegue mañana (dependant clause) • There are 4 main clauses: volition, emotion, unreality, doubt and denial Volition Demands, wishes, advice, persuasion, and other impositions of will Verbs include: Aconsejar (to advise) mandar (to order) querer Decir necesitar recomendar Desear pedir (to ask) sugerir (suggest) *Mandar, sugerir, aconsejar and pedir are often preceded by an i.o.p. (S.P.A.M.) ▯ Ex. Te sugiero que vayas al médico Emotion (E.A.T.S.) temer (fear) esperar (hope) alegrarse (de) (to be glad) Sentir (to regret) -Mañana salgo para Quito- -Espero que te diviertas mucho- -Temono poder ir de vacaciones con ustedes este verano- Doubt, Denial and Disbelief Doubt Dudo (I doubt) no estoy seguro (I’m not sure) Denial no es cierto (it’s not true) niega (denis) Disbelief no creo (I don’t think) no es verdad (its not right) -denial 3. Uses of the Preposition a, de and en A (to, at, or in) expresses direction toward a point in space or a moment in time • To indicate the time (hour) of day ▯ ex. A las cinco salimos para Lima • After the verbs empezar, comenzar, enseñar, and aprender, when followed by a inf. ▯ ex. ellos empezaron a salir ▯ or▯ te enseñé a bailar el tengo (I taught you) • after verbs of motion, when followed by an inf., noun, or a pronoun ▯ ex. siempre vengo a comprar aquí • After the verb llegar • before the d.o. noun that refers to a specific person. Also to personify an animal ▯ ex. yo no conozco a ese médico ▯ ex. bañé a mi perro * if the direct object is not a definite person the personal a is not used Maggie Smith▯ Pg. 2 Spanish 112 - Unit 6 - Lesson 11/12 - Grammar ▯ DE (of, from, about, with, in) indicates possession, material and origin • to refer to a specific period of the day or night when telling time ▯ ex. el sábado pasado trabajamos hasta las ocho de la noche • After the superlative to express in or for ▯ ex. Orlando es el más simpático de la familia • to describe personal physical characteristics ▯ ex. es morena, de ojos negros • as a synonym for sobre or acerca de (about). ▯ ex. hablaban de todo menos del viaje (They were talking about everything ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ except about the trip.) EN (at, in, on, inside, over) in general situates someone or something within an area of time or space. • to refer to a definite place ▯ ex. el siempre se queda en casa (he always stays at home) • as a synonym for sobre (on) ▯ ex. está sentada en la silla (she is sitting on the chair) • To indicate means of transportation ▯ ex. nunca he viajado en ómnibus (I have never travelled by bus) 4. Subjunctive to express indefiniteness and nonexistence always used in the subordinate clause when the main one refers to something or someone that is indefinite, unspecified, hypothetical or nonexistent. • Hay alguna excursión que incluya el hotel? is there any tour that includes the hotel? • No, no hay ninguna que lo incluya. No, there is not any that includes it. • Necesito un secretario que hable ingles. I need a secretary who speaks english • Hay varios restaurantes donde sirven comida italiana. 5. Familiar Commands regular affirmative commands in the tú form have the same forms as the third person singular (el) of the present indicative Verb Present Indictive (él) Familiar command (tú) hablar él habla habla comer él come come cerrar él cierra cierra volver él vuelve vuelve pedir él pide pide traer
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