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Chapter

FSN 223 Chapter Notes -Fashion Capital, Black Model, Jessica Simpson

10 Pages
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Winter 2013

Department
Fashion
Course Code
FSN 223
Professor
benbarry

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Week 1 – The Fashion Impulse
The fashion impulse is the achievement of distinctiveness in dress through clothing and symbols that
balance the impulse to belong to a group and the individual desire to stand out and make themselves
known. Fashion impulses are constantly changing clothing codes and stylistic registers.
Dress
clothing, apparel, ornaments to the body
can also refer to everyday modes or functions of dress
sometimes dress can be used to denote a stable genre of clothing does not change quickly
Fashion
a prevailing style or custom of dress, etiquette, modish style of the time
styles of behaviour and social status
clothing habits that are subject to changes of style in a short period of time
belongs to the collective (group, society)
confined to a limited amount of time, although not necessarily short-lived
Style
A combination of silhouette, construction, fabric, that make the performance of an outfit
distinctive of an aesthetic form
3 Elements Related to the Fashion Impulse
1. Fashion is a system of communication
2. Fashion helps us define ourselves as individuals and group members
3. The essence of fashion is change
Sumptuary Laws (pg. 49-50)
Legislation that is designed to control the conspicuous consumption of clothes and apparel.
“Little Black Dress” (pg. 46)
Created by Coco Chanel
Black was a symbol for many things; mourning, godliness, professionalism
Chanel's dress was labelled as the “new chic antifashion”
Week 2 – Fashion Cycles, Symbols, and Flows
Theories of Fashion (pgs, 106 - 109)
Trickle-Down Theory
-Fashion trends start among the elite or fashion leaders and move down to the masses of fashion
followers
-Elites -> Mass Population
Trickle-Up Theory
-Fashion trends start among the masses (youth, sub-cultures), and move upward to the fashion
leaders and elites
-Mass Population -> Elites
Trickle-Across Theory
-Fashion moves horizontally from fashion leaders to masses at the same social level
Cultural Appropriation
Taking intellectual property, traditional knowledge, cultural expressions, or artifacts from
someone else's culture without permission.
Source, significance (or sacredness), and similarity (three S's)
The Harm of Cultural Appropriation
1. Misrepresentation of culture
2. Dehumanizes and devalues
3. Removes context and meaning
The Five Stages of the Fashion Cycle
1. Introduction of a style
2. Increase in popularity
3. Peak in popularity
4. Decline in popularity
5. Rejection of a style
Week 3: Fashion and Representation
Speaker: Noreen Flannagen
Editor in Chief at Elle Canada
Went to nursing school, worked in journalism
Be curious, look for a lot of chances and encounters
Education is important
Western Beauty Ideal
Thin
Tall
Caucasian
Blonde
Big eyes
Fair skin
Size and Body Image
Thin size
Proportionate size, in terms of the 'standard' proportion
Barbie – real life, very disproportionate
Reasons Why Thin Models are Used
(to the industry), clothes look 'better'
easier, more cost effective to make smaller clothes
Charles Worth was the first to use models
Race, First Black Model on Vogue
Beverly Johnson, first black model on Vogue with no obscurities
Reasons Why Designers are not Hiring Black Models
“Black Face” makeup – offensive
Hair, skin colour, history
Beauty Ideal of Men
Not much attention in the past (fashion was focused on women)
Male models, fitness magazines, ad campaigns
Must be, fit, lean, built, have a good body, etc
Men, not only women, are also objectified
Objectification
Reducing a person’s worth and role to their sexual function
Disregards a person’s character, personality, and intelligence
Dismemberment
Highlights one body part while ignoring all the other parts
Effect is that a person is not a whole human being but instead one sexualized part
Week 5: The Eurocentric Fashion System
Paris as the Original Fashion Capital and History
Paris established itself as the centre of the fashion system of modernity
A lot of designers originated and stationed their lines in Paris
First, Haute Couture, then pret-a-porter (ready-to-wear), then avant-garde
Charles Worth – The Father of Haute Couture (pg. 69 – Box 2.1)
-1858 - Charles Worth established his fashion house in Paris
-He combined knowledge pf historic costume with new fashion ideas, paid close attention to the fit
of garments, ensured high standard of tailoring and craftsmanship (looked to the past and present)
-Changed the role of the designer. It was radical that he was a ‘man’ who was creating fashion for
women.
Other Fashion Capitals and Non-Western Fashion Capitals
London, New York, Milan
Beijing, Bombay, Tokyo, Singapore, Hong Kong
New fashion capital: Shanghai
The Fashion City Typology
-Economic Capital (money and resources)
-Social Capitals (networks of influence/support)
-Cultural capital (regimes of taste)
7 Specific Fashion City elements (What makes a fashion capital?)
1. Training and research institutions
2. Skilled and specialized subcontractors
3. Promotional infrastructure
4. Design tradition
5. Fashion Consumption
6. Links between fashion and cultural industries
7. Links within the fashion industry
Week 6: Fashion and Identity I

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Description
Week 1 – The Fashion Impulse The fashion impulse is the achievement of distinctiveness in dress through clothing and symbols that balance the impulse to belong to a group and the individual desire to stand out and make themselves known. Fashion impulses are constantly changing clothing codes and stylistic registers. Dress – clothing, apparel, ornaments to the body – can also refer to everyday modes or functions of dress – sometimes dress can be used to denote a stable genre of clothing does not change quickly Fashion – a prevailing style or custom of dress, etiquette, modish style of the time – styles of behaviour and social status – clothing habits that are subject to changes of style in a short period of time – belongs to the collective (group, society) – confined to a limited amount of time, although not necessarily short-lived Style – Acombination of silhouette, construction, fabric, that make the performance of an outfit distinctive of an aesthetic form 3 Elements Related to the Fashion Impulse 1. Fashion is a system of communication 2. Fashion helps us define ourselves as individuals and group members 3. The essence of fashion is change Sumptuary Laws (pg. 49-50) – Legislation that is designed to control the conspicuous consumption of clothes and apparel. “Little Black Dress” (pg. 46) – Created by Coco Chanel – Black was a symbol for many things; mourning, godliness, professionalism – Chanel's dress was labelled as the “new chic antifashion” Week 2 – Fashion Cycles, Symbols, and Flows Theories of Fashion (pgs, 106 - 109) Trickle-Down Theory - Fashion trends start among the elite or fashion leaders and move down to the masses of fashion followers - Elites -> Mass Population Trickle-Up Theory - Fashion trends start among the masses (youth, sub-cultures), and move upward to the fashion leaders and elites - Mass Population -> Elites Trickle-Across Theory - Fashion moves horizontally from fashion leaders to masses at the same social level CulturalAppropriation – Taking intellectual property, traditional knowledge, cultural expressions, or artifacts from someone else's culture without permission. – Source, significance (or sacredness), and similarity (three S's) The Harm of CulturalAppropriation 1. Misrepresentation of culture 2. Dehumanizes and devalues 3. Removes context and meaning The Five Stages of the Fashion Cycle 1. Introduction of a style 2. Increase in popularity 3. Peak in popularity 4. Decline in popularity 5. Rejection of a style Week 3: Fashion and Representation Speaker: Noreen Flannagen – Editor in Chief at Elle Canada – Went to nursing school, worked in journalism – Be curious, look for a lot of chances and encounters – Education is important Western Beauty Ideal – Thin – Tall – Caucasian – Blonde – Big eyes – Fair skin – Size and Body Image – Thin size – Proportionate size, in terms of the 'standard' proportion – Barbie – real life, very disproportionate – Reasons Why Thin Models are Used – (to the industry), clothes look 'better' – easier, more cost effective to make smaller clothes – Charles Worth was the first to use models Race, First Black Model on Vogue – Beverly Johnson, first black model on Vogue with no obscurities Reasons Why Designers are not Hiring Black Models – “Black Face” makeup – offensive – Hair, skin colour, history Beauty Ideal of Men – Not much attention in the past (fashion was focused on women) – Male models, fitness magazines, ad campaigns – Must be, fit, lean, built, have a good body, etc – Men, not only women, are also objectified Objectification – Reducing a person’s worth and role to their sexual function – Disregards a person’s character, personality, and intelligence Dismemberment – Highlights one body part while ignoring all the other parts – Effect is that a person is not a whole human being but instead one sexualized part Week 5: The Eurocentric Fashion System Paris as the Original Fashion Capital and History – Paris established itself as the centre of the fashion system of modernity – Alot of designers originated and stationed their lines in Paris – First, Haute Couture, then pret-a-porter (ready-to-wear), then avant-garde Charles Worth – The Father of Haute Couture (pg. 69 – Box 2.1) - 1858 - Charles Worth established his fashion house in Paris - He combined knowledge pf historic costume with new fashion ideas, paid close attention to the fit of garments, ensured high standard of tailoring and craftsmanship (looked to the past and present) - Changed the role of the designer. It was radical that he was a ‘man’who was creating fashion for women. Other Fashion Capitals and Non-Western Fashion Capitals – London, New York, Milan – Beijing, Bombay, Tokyo, Singapore, Hong Kong – New fashion capital: Shanghai The Fashion City Typology - Economic Capital (money and resources) - Social Capitals (networks of influence/support) - Cultural capital (regimes of taste) 7 Specific Fashion City elements (What makes a fashion capital?) 1. Training and research institutions 2. Skilled and specialized subcontractors 3. Promotional infrastructure 4. Design tradition 5. Fashion Consumption 6. Links between fashion and cultural industries 7. Links within the fashion industry Week 6: Fashion and Identity I Speaker: Liis Windischmann – Been in the plus-size industry for 19 years – Entry into modelling – on treadmill, cut head off in photo-shoot Old Navy - Sizes go up to 20 - No Plus sizes - Plus sizes are exclusive online H&M - Plus size dresses, only available in Europe - Plus size was gotten rid of, not selling - Plus size is available in the US Not very much availability for plus-size women - Most looks must be ordered from Europe - Editorials – plus-size often in lingerie, or naked (because there are no clothes) - Need more plus-size sample clothing Mode Magazine - Many ads, plus-size ads - Fashion magazine Grace & Figure Magazine - Lifestyle magazine - Customers wanted Vogue-like magazines, but with bigger models What Companies Do to “Save Money” - “Also available in plus sizes” - “Plus sizes available online” - Only make small sample sizes of PR usage - Use only 0-4 in ads to represent all size ranges Designers to look out for Tadashi Shoji - Understands rouching Anna Scholz - Carried in a lot of stores in the US Igigi - Cuts that flatter everyone INC - Aline that is available for straight size and plus-size women Jessica Simpson - Alot of fur vests available for plus-size women The Social Body (pg. 136 - 139) – The natural body is transformed to the social body by clothing and post-natal rituals prescribed by cultural mores – Our bodies are trained in appropriate ways of behaviours in the context in which we live – Our Bodies Are Not Natural – Our Bodies Are Conduits of Power – Capital Cultural (ability to rise to a higher power because we follow the fashion context set out for us) The Difference Between Sex and Gender Sex – the biological distinction Gender – the lifestyle that a person wishes to emulate - We are born male or female, but not masculine or feminine. Femininity and masculinity is an artifice, an achievement. Femininity (pg. 140 – 143) Femininity is bound up with fashion, as females contrive to create a certain look that becomes the object of the male gaze. Body Work – body modification, dieting, exercise, cosmetic enhancement Masculinity (pg. 143 – 145) Masculinity builds body techniques that communite power and authority over the body and its habitus as the locus of social status. The Processes of Doing Gender (How we are socialized into gender) 1. Prestigious Imitation 2. Technical Training 3. Acquisition of Stylistic Registers Four dimensions for the feminine role 1. Adherence to cultural beauty standards 2. Performance of family/domestic skills
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