GMS CH 11 – Leading and Leadership Development
The Nature of Leadership
Leadership is the process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks. It is one of the four
functions that constitute the management process (leading, planning, controlling and organizing). Leading is to
inspire effort; communicate the vision, build enthusiasm, and motivate commitment, and hard work.
Leadership and Power: Power is the ability to get someone else to do something you want done, or to make
things happen the way you want. The three bases of position power are reward power, coercive power, and
legitimate power. The two bases of person power are expertise and reference. Sources of power: power of the
position: based on things managers can offer to others and power of the person: based on how managers are
viewed by others.
Position Power: Reward power is the ability to influence through rewards. Coercive power is the ability to
influence through punishment. Legitimate power is the ability to influence through authority—the right by
virtue of one’s organizational position or status to exercise control over persons in subordinate positions.
Personal Power: Expert power is the ability to influence through special expertise. Referent power is the ability
to influence through identification (when someone admires you and want to identify positively with you).
Leadership and Vision: Successful leadership is associated with vision—a future that one hopes to create or
achieve in order to improve upon the present state of affairs; a clear sense of the future. Visionary leadership
describes a leader who brings to the situation a clear and compelling sense of the future, as well as an
understanding of the actions needed to get there successfully; it brings meaning to people’s work and makes
what they do seem worth and valuable.
Leadership as Service: Servant leadership is leadership based on commitment to serving others—to helping
people use their talents to full potential while working together for organizations that benefit society; it is “other
centered”. Servant leaders empower others by providing them with the info, responsibility, authority, and trust
to make decisions and act independently.
Leadership Traits and Behaviours
Leadership Traits: Personal traits of many successful leaders include: drive—high energy, display initiative and
are tenacious, self-confidence, creativity, cognitive ability—the intelligence to integrate and interpret info, job-
relevant knowledge, motivation, flexibility and honesty + integrity.
Leadership Behaviours: Leadership style is the recurring pattern of behaviours exhibited by a leader.Aleader
high in concern for the task plans and defined the work to be done, assigns task responsibilities, sets clear work
standards, urges task completion, and monitors performance results.Aleader high in concern for people acts
warm and supportive toward followers, maintains good social relations with them, respects their feelings, is
sensitive to their needs, and shows trust in them. Truly effective leaders are high in concerns for people and
concerns for task; a team manager—focuses on building participation and support for a shared purpose (high-
high combination on the leadership grid.
Classical Leadership Styles: Aleader with an autocratic style acts in a unilateral, command-and-control fashion
emphasizes task over people, and retains authority. Aleader with a human relations style emphasizes people
over tasks. Aleader with a laissez-faire style shows little concern for the task and displays a “do the best you
can and don’t bother me” attitude. Aleader with a democratic style is committed to both task and people, trying
to get things done while sharing info, encouraging participation in decision-making and otherwise helping
others develop their skills and capabilities.
ContingencyApproaches to Leadership
Fiedler’s Contingency Model (leadership is hard to change)
Understanding Leadership Style: leadership style here is measures on the least-preferred co-worker scale. It
describes tendencies to behave either as a task-motivated leader or as a relationship-motivated leader. Fiedler
believes that leadership style is part of one’s personality, and that the key to leadership success is putting our
existing styles to work in situations for which they are best fit.
Understanding the Leadership Situations: The quality of leader-member relations measures the degree to which
the group supports the leader. The degree of task structure measures the extent to which task goals, procedures, and guidelines are clearly spelled out. The amount of position power measures the degree to which the position
gives the leader power to reward and punish subordinates.
Matching Leadership Style and Situation:Atask-oriented leader will be most successful in either a very
favourable or very unfavourable situation.Arelationship-oriented leader will be most successful in situations of
Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model (successful leaders do adjust their styles)
Leaders change their styles based on the maturity of followers. The combinations of task-oriented and
relationship-oriented behaviours result in four leadership styles: delegating—allowing the group to take
responsibility for task decisions, participating—emphasizing shared ideas and participative decisions on task
directions, selling—explaining task directions in a supportive and persuasive way, and telling—giving specific
task directions and closely supervising work.
Path-Goal Leadership Theory (effective leader is one who clarifies paths by which followers can achieve both
task-related and personal goals)
Path goal theorists believe leaders should shift back and forth among these four leadership styles to create
positive path-goal linkages: directive leadership—letting subordinates know what is expected and giving
directions on what to do and how; scheduling work to be done and maintain definite standards of performance;
clarifying the leader’s role in the group, supportive leadership—doing things to make work more pleasant;
treating group members as equals; being friendly and approachable; showing concern for the well-being of
subordinates, achievement-oriented leadership—setting challenging goals; expecting the highest levels of
performance; emphasizing continuous improvement in performance; displaying confidence in meeting high
standards and participative leadership—involving subordinates in decision-making; consulting with
subordinates; asking for suggestions from subordinates; using these suggestions when making a decision.
Path-Goal Contingencies: important contingencies for making good path-goal leadership choices include
follower characteristics—ability, experience, and locus of control and work characteristics—task structure,
authority system, and work group.
Substitutes for Leadership: are factors in the work setting that direct work efforts without the involvement of a
Leader-Member Exchange Theory: Not everyone is treated the same by a leader, people fall into ‘in-groups’and
Leader-Participation Model: leadership success results when the decision-making method used by a leader best
fits the problem being faced. Aleader’s choice for making decisions falls into three categories: authority
decision—made by the leader then communicated to the group, consultative decision—made by a leader after
receiving info, advice or opinions from group members and group decisions—made by group members
themselves. The leader’s choice among the decision-making method is governed by three rules: 1) decision
quality—based on who has the info needed for problem solving, 2) decision acceptance—based on the
importance of followers acceptance of the decision and its eventual implementation and 3) decision time—
based on the time available to make and implement the decision.Authority decisions work best when leaders
personally have the expertise needed to solve the problem. Consultative and group decisions work best when
the leader lacks sufficient expertise and info to solve the problem alone, the problem is unclear and help is
needed to clarify the situation, acceptance of the decision and commitment by others are necessary for
implementation and adequate time is available to allow for true participation. However the cost of high
participation is lost efficiency.
Issues in Leadership Development
Charismatic leaders develop special leader-follower relationships and inspire followers in extraordinary ways.
Transformational Leadership: is inspirational and arouses extraordinary effort and performance. (ex: martin
luther king) Transformational leaders raise th