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GMS CH 11.docx

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Ryerson University
Global Management Studies
GMS 200
Bamidele Adekunle

GMS CH 11 – Leading and Leadership Development The Nature of Leadership Leadership is the process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks. It is one of the four functions that constitute the management process (leading, planning, controlling and organizing). Leading is to inspire effort; communicate the vision, build enthusiasm, and motivate commitment, and hard work. Leadership and Power: Power is the ability to get someone else to do something you want done, or to make things happen the way you want. The three bases of position power are reward power, coercive power, and legitimate power. The two bases of person power are expertise and reference. Sources of power: power of the position: based on things managers can offer to others and power of the person: based on how managers are viewed by others. Position Power: Reward power is the ability to influence through rewards. Coercive power is the ability to influence through punishment. Legitimate power is the ability to influence through authority—the right by virtue of one’s organizational position or status to exercise control over persons in subordinate positions. Personal Power: Expert power is the ability to influence through special expertise. Referent power is the ability to influence through identification (when someone admires you and want to identify positively with you). Leadership and Vision: Successful leadership is associated with vision—a future that one hopes to create or achieve in order to improve upon the present state of affairs; a clear sense of the future. Visionary leadership describes a leader who brings to the situation a clear and compelling sense of the future, as well as an understanding of the actions needed to get there successfully; it brings meaning to people’s work and makes what they do seem worth and valuable. Leadership as Service: Servant leadership is leadership based on commitment to serving others—to helping people use their talents to full potential while working together for organizations that benefit society; it is “other centered”. Servant leaders empower others by providing them with the info, responsibility, authority, and trust to make decisions and act independently. Leadership Traits and Behaviours Leadership Traits: Personal traits of many successful leaders include: drive—high energy, display initiative and are tenacious, self-confidence, creativity, cognitive ability—the intelligence to integrate and interpret info, job- relevant knowledge, motivation, flexibility and honesty + integrity. Leadership Behaviours: Leadership style is the recurring pattern of behaviours exhibited by a leader.Aleader high in concern for the task plans and defined the work to be done, assigns task responsibilities, sets clear work standards, urges task completion, and monitors performance results.Aleader high in concern for people acts warm and supportive toward followers, maintains good social relations with them, respects their feelings, is sensitive to their needs, and shows trust in them. Truly effective leaders are high in concerns for people and concerns for task; a team manager—focuses on building participation and support for a shared purpose (high- high combination on the leadership grid. Classical Leadership Styles: Aleader with an autocratic style acts in a unilateral, command-and-control fashion emphasizes task over people, and retains authority. Aleader with a human relations style emphasizes people over tasks. Aleader with a laissez-faire style shows little concern for the task and displays a “do the best you can and don’t bother me” attitude. Aleader with a democratic style is committed to both task and people, trying to get things done while sharing info, encouraging participation in decision-making and otherwise helping others develop their skills and capabilities. ContingencyApproaches to Leadership Fiedler’s Contingency Model (leadership is hard to change) Understanding Leadership Style: leadership style here is measures on the least-preferred co-worker scale. It describes tendencies to behave either as a task-motivated leader or as a relationship-motivated leader. Fiedler believes that leadership style is part of one’s personality, and that the key to leadership success is putting our existing styles to work in situations for which they are best fit. Understanding the Leadership Situations: The quality of leader-member relations measures the degree to which the group supports the leader. The degree of task structure measures the extent to which task goals, procedures, and guidelines are clearly spelled out. The amount of position power measures the degree to which the position gives the leader power to reward and punish subordinates. Matching Leadership Style and Situation:Atask-oriented leader will be most successful in either a very favourable or very unfavourable situation.Arelationship-oriented leader will be most successful in situations of moderate control. Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model (successful leaders do adjust their styles) Leaders change their styles based on the maturity of followers. The combinations of task-oriented and relationship-oriented behaviours result in four leadership styles: delegating—allowing the group to take responsibility for task decisions, participating—emphasizing shared ideas and participative decisions on task directions, selling—explaining task directions in a supportive and persuasive way, and telling—giving specific task directions and closely supervising work. Path-Goal Leadership Theory (effective leader is one who clarifies paths by which followers can achieve both task-related and personal goals) Path goal theorists believe leaders should shift back and forth among these four leadership styles to create positive path-goal linkages: directive leadership—letting subordinates know what is expected and giving directions on what to do and how; scheduling work to be done and maintain definite standards of performance; clarifying the leader’s role in the group, supportive leadership—doing things to make work more pleasant; treating group members as equals; being friendly and approachable; showing concern for the well-being of subordinates, achievement-oriented leadership—setting challenging goals; expecting the highest levels of performance; emphasizing continuous improvement in performance; displaying confidence in meeting high standards and participative leadership—involving subordinates in decision-making; consulting with subordinates; asking for suggestions from subordinates; using these suggestions when making a decision. Path-Goal Contingencies: important contingencies for making good path-goal leadership choices include follower characteristics—ability, experience, and locus of control and work characteristics—task structure, authority system, and work group. Substitutes for Leadership: are factors in the work setting that direct work efforts without the involvement of a leader. Leader-Member Exchange Theory: Not everyone is treated the same by a leader, people fall into ‘in-groups’and ‘out-groups’. Leader-Participation Model: leadership success results when the decision-making method used by a leader best fits the problem being faced. Aleader’s choice for making decisions falls into three categories: authority decision—made by the leader then communicated to the group, consultative decision—made by a leader after receiving info, advice or opinions from group members and group decisions—made by group members themselves. The leader’s choice among the decision-making method is governed by three rules: 1) decision quality—based on who has the info needed for problem solving, 2) decision acceptance—based on the importance of followers acceptance of the decision and its eventual implementation and 3) decision time— based on the time available to make and implement the decision.Authority decisions work best when leaders personally have the expertise needed to solve the problem. Consultative and group decisions work best when the leader lacks sufficient expertise and info to solve the problem alone, the problem is unclear and help is needed to clarify the situation, acceptance of the decision and commitment by others are necessary for implementation and adequate time is available to allow for true participation. However the cost of high participation is lost efficiency. Issues in Leadership Development Charismatic leaders develop special leader-follower relationships and inspire followers in extraordinary ways. Transformational Leadership: is inspirational and arouses extraordinary effort and performance. (ex: martin luther king) Transformational leaders raise th
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