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Chapter 7

GMS401- Chapter 7- Design of Work Systems.docx

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Ryerson University
Global Management Studies
GMS 401
Sam Lampropoulos

GMS401- Chapter 7: Design of Work Systems Introduction and Job Design  Work system design involves job design (content and method), determination of working conditions, work measurements (i.e. establishment of standard times) and compensation.  Job design: Specifying the content and method of a job to increase long term productivity  Current practice in job design contains elements of two basic schools of thought. One the efficiency school, which emphasizes a systematic, logical approach to labour cost reduction; the other is called the behavioural school and emphasizes satisfaction of wants and needs of workers as a motivator for increased Efficiency Approach  A refinement of Taylor’s scientific management concepts  Systematic, logical approach to job design  Labour cost reduction  Specialization: focuses jobs to a narrow scope Specialization Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages For company: For worker: 1. Simplifies training 1. low education and skill requirements 2. High productivity 2. Minimum responsibilities 3. Low wage costs 3. Little mental effort needed Disadvantages For company: For worker: 1. Difficult to motivate quality 1. Monotonous work 2. Worker satisfaction, possibly resulting in absent2,. Limited opportunities for advancement high turnover, disruptive tactics 3. Little control over work 4. Little opportunity for self-fulfillment Behavioural Approach  Job Enlargement: giving a worker a larger portion of the total task by horizontal loading  Job Rotation: workers periodically exchange jobs  Job Enrichment: Increasing responsibility for planning and coordination tasks, by vertical loading  Self-directed teams: Groups who perform the same function and are empowered to make certain decisions and changes in their work  Also known as autonomous team e.g. the milling operation in a plant  Benefits of teams  Fewer managers are necessary  Higher quality  Higher productivity  Greater worker satisfaction Methods Analysis Method analysis: breaks down the job into a sequence of tasks and elements and improves it  Basic procedure:  Identify the job to be studied and gather information  Discuss the job with the operator and supervisor  Study and document the present method  Question the present method and propose a new one  Analyzing and improving methods is facilitated by the use of various charts, such as process charts and worker-machine charts Process charts: chart used to examine the overall sequence of an operating by focusing on movements of the operator or flow of material  Ask: o Why is there a delay or shortage at this point? o How can travel distances be shortened/avoided? o Can an operation be eliminated? o Can the sequence be changes? 1 GMS401- Chapter 7: Design of Work Systems o Can similar activities be grouped? o Would additional or better equipment help? Work-machine chart: used to determine portions of a work cycle during which an operator and equipment are busy or idle  Helps to see portions of work cycle during which an operator and equipment are busy or idle  Can help determine how many machines one operator can manage  Refer to Figure 7-4 page 225 Motion Study: Systematic study of the human motions used to perform and operation or task  Purpose was to eliminate unnecessary motions and identify best sequence of motions  Evolved form Frank Gilbreth, who originated the concept in the bricklaying trade in the early twentieth century  Motion economy principles:  guidelines for designing motion - efficient work procedures  Analysis of elemental motions (therbligs):  basic elemental motions into which a job can be broken down  Micro motion study:  use of motion pictures and slow motion to study motions that otherwise would be too rapid to analyze  Simultaneous hand motion chart:  a chart that shows the elements performed by each hand, side by side, over time  Note: “therbligs” is Gilbreths backwards. The Gilbreths are the subject of the movie “Cheaper By The Dozen”.  There is a story that Frank Gilbreth tried to save time by shaving with a razor in each hand, but stopped this practice because the amount of time spent tending his cuts took more than the time saved. Micro-motion study: use of motion pictures and slow motion pictures that otherwise would be too rapid to analyze  This approach is applied not only in industry but also in some other areas such as sports.  Frank and his wife were also responsible for this Simo Chart: A chart that shows the elementary motions performed by each hand, side-by-side, over time Working Conditions pg.226  Canadian Labour Code o safety and other work standards (e.g.. min wage) o Workers have rights to:  refuse dangerous work,  participate in improving health & safety,  know about hazards in the workplace.  Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety  Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS),  mandates proper labeling of hazardous material  making available material safety data sheets. Noise:  Selection and placement of equipment  Acoustical w
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