GMS 200 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Chris Argyris, Human Capital, Transactional Leadership
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What does Global Management mean?
Involves managing operations in more than one country.
Define Globalized economy
Resources, markets, and competition are worldwide in scope.
In a competitive global business landscape, the increasing demand for talented, knowledge
workers is primarily due to the increasing use of low-cost production. (FALSE). It is due to
advancement in technology.
The age gap in today’s workplaces is one of the diversity issues that may create major challenges
for managers. (TRUE)
The recruitment and retention of talented workers is one of the major challenges faced by
manager in a global competitive economy (TRUE).
According to the Katz’s framework on essential managerial skills, low-level managers need to
develop more conceptual skills than top-level managers (FALSE).
What are the key conditions that describes the general (business) environment?
Economic Conditions: influence customer spending, resource supplies, and investment
Legal-Political Conditions: laws and regulations, government policies, and philosophies of
Technological Conditions: Rapid changing technology and implications that it has on work
Socio-cultural Conditions: Norms, customs, social values and beliefs on matters such as
ethics, human rights, lifestyles. Companies need to anticipate changing trends.
Natural Environment Conditions: “Green” perspectives, concerned with global warming
and being eco friends.
Describe a Learning Organization
Renewed belief in human capital
Emphasis on teamwork,
demise of “command and control”,
Pre-eminence of technology,
embrace of networking,
new workforce expectations,
concern for work-life balance,
Focus on speed.
What are the critical survival skills for a new workplace?
Planning: process of setting objectives, and ways of accomplishing them
Organizing: arranging tasks, people, and resources to accomplish work
Leading: Inspiring people to work hard
Controlling: Measuring performance and taking actions.
What are the three branches of the classical approach to management?
Who is known as the father of Scientific Management?
Fredrick W. Taylor, Father of scientific management.
Who is known as the father of bureaucratic management?
Max Weber, father of bureaucratic management.
What are the main findings of the Hawthorne studies (1924-32)?
Initial study examined how economic incentives and physical conditions affected
No consistent relationship found
“Psychological factors” influenced results
Relay assembly test-room studies
Manipulated physical work conditions to assess impact on output
Designed to minimize the “psychological factors” of previous experiment
Factors that accounted for increased productivity
Employee attitudes, interpersonal relations and group processes
Some things satisfied some workers but not others
People restricted output to adhere to group norms
Lessons from the Hawthorne Studies:
Social and human concerns are keys to productivity
Hawthorne effect — people who are singled out for special attention perform as
Review Fredrick Taylor’s approach to scientific management
Develop rules of motion, standardized work implements, and proper working conditions
for every job
Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job
Carefully train workers and provide proper incentives
Support workers by carefully planning their work and removing obstacles
Science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions
Eliminating wasted motions improves performance
Practical lessons from scientific management
Make results-based compensation a performance incentive
Carefully design jobs with efficient work methods
Carefully select workers with the abilities to do these jobs
Train workers to perform jobs to the best of their abilities
Train supervisors to support workers so they can perform jobs to the best of their
Review Max Weber’s approach to bureaucratic management?
An ideal, intentionally rational, and very efficient form of organization
Based on principles of logic, order, and legitimate authority
Characteristics of bureaucratic organizations:
Clear division of labour
Clear hierarchy of authority
Formal rules and procedures
Careers based on merit
Possible Disadvantages of bureaucracy:
Excessive paperwork or “red tape”
Slowness in handling problems
Rigidity in the face of shifting need
Resistance to change
Review Maslow’s Hierarchy
A need is a physiological or psychological deficiency a person feels compelled to satisfy
A satisfied need is not a motivator of behaviour
A need becomes a motivator once the preceding lower-level need is satisfied
Both principles cease to operate at self-actualization level
Review Chris Argyris’ theory of adult personality
Classical management principles and practices inhibit worker maturation and are
inconsistent with the mature adult personality
Management practices should accommodate the mature personality by:
Increasing task responsibility
Increasing task variety
Using participative decision making
Review (human systems) Contingency Thinking (model)
Tries to match managerial responses with problems and opportunities unique to
Especially individual or environmental differences
No “one best way” to manage
Appropriate way to manage depends on the situation
Involves managing operations in more than one country. Resources, markets, and competition are worldwide in scope. In a competitive global business landscape, the increasing demand for talented, knowledge workers is primarily due to the increasing use of low-cost production. (false). The age gap in today"s workplaces is one of the diversity issues that may create major challenges for managers. (true) The recruitment and retention of talented workers is one of the major challenges faced by manager in a global competitive economy (true). According to the katz"s framework on essential managerial skills, low-level managers need to develop more conceptual skills than top-level managers (false). Economic conditions: influence customer spending, resource supplies, and investment capital. Legal-political conditions: laws and regulations, government policies, and philosophies of political parties. Technological conditions: rapid changing technology and implications that it has on work environment. Socio-cultural conditions: norms, customs, social values and beliefs on matters such as ethics, human rights, lifestyles.