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Chapter 4

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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 405
Frank Miller

Chapter 4: Motivation at Work Motivation – The set of forces internal (individuals needs and motives) and external (environmental forces), that initiate work-related behaviour and determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration Intrinsic Motivation – A person’s internal drive to do something because of such things as interest, challenge and personal satisfaction Extrinsic Motivation – Motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, tangible rewards or a promotion Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 1. Self Actualization 2. Esteem Needs 3. Belongingness (Social) needs 4. Safety and Security needs 5. Physiological Needs Need hierarchy – Maslow’s theory that people are motivated by 5 sets of needs, and that as a lower need is gratified, the person becomes motivated by the next need in the hierarchy Progression Hypothesis – The lowest level of ungratified need motivates behaviour Theory X and Theory Y  Douglas McGregor  Built on Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs higher and lower  Used to explain managerial bias towards employees  Theory X – A set of assumptions of how a manage individuals who motivated by lower order of needs Example: Treating employees like kids (lower pay jobs)  Theory Y – A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher order needs Example: Trusting employees and motivating them ERG Theory  Clayton Adlerfer simplified Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs from 5 to 3  Existence, Relatedness, and Growth  ERG Theory – People are motivated by three sets of needs and that as a lower level need is gratified, the person becomes ,motivated by the next need in the hierarchy; but when unable to fulfill a higher need, they will regress to a lower one Page 1 of 4  Frustration Regression Hypothesis – Theory that when people and frustrated in their ability to satisfy a higher order need they regress to the next lower category of needs and intensify their desire to gratify these needs  Example: An employee stuck in a dead end job turns to socializing because he can’t leave job due to poor economy McClelland’s Theory of learned Needs – Knowing which need dominates an individual can help motivate him or her  Secondary needs were operating as well. These needs did not progress in a hierarchal manner, were learned, varied based on an individual’s personality  Needs for Achievement – A learned need that concerns an individual’s issues of excellence, completion, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties o Set goals; Like feed back; Like no one interfering in their plans; prefer working alone; entrepreneurs  Needs for Power – A learned need that concerns an individual’s need to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life o Like to be in control of people and events; Managers; best ones have high socialized power; effective managers had power needs of affiliation  Needs for Affiliation – A learned need that concerns an individual’s need to establish and maintain warm, close, intimate relationships with other people o Motivated to express their emotions and feelings to others; expect others to do the same; find conflicts disturbing and motivated to work pass them in closeness; Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation  Fredrick Herzberg  Differences between satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work  Ask people at work about 2 incidents at work which were satisfying and not satisfying  Criticism: No clear distinction between 2 and absence of individual differences (age, sex)  Motivators – Intrinsic factors in the job that lead to satisfaction, such as achievement and the work itself o More important than Hygiene factors because they directly affect a person’s motivational drive
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